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From b5f8ae0f8ed703b54019ccfe392b41d7bcf5c015 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
From: Mauro Andreolini <mauro.andreolini@unimore.it>
Date: Sun, 6 Sep 2015 16:09:05 +0200
Subject: [PATCH 19/21] block, bfq: add Early Queue Merge (EQM) to BFQ-v7r11
 for 4.5.0

A set of processes may happen  to  perform interleaved reads, i.e.,requests
whose union would give rise to a  sequential read  pattern.  There are two
typical  cases: in the first  case,   processes  read  fixed-size chunks of
data at a fixed distance from each other, while in the second case processes
may read variable-size chunks at  variable distances. The latter case occurs
for  example with  QEMU, which  splits the  I/O generated  by the  guest into
multiple chunks,  and lets these chunks  be served by a  pool of cooperating
processes,  iteratively  assigning  the  next  chunk of  I/O  to  the first
available  process. CFQ  uses actual  queue merging  for the  first type of
rocesses, whereas it  uses preemption to get a sequential  read pattern out
of the read requests  performed by the second type of  processes. In the end
it uses  two different  mechanisms to  achieve the  same goal: boosting the
throughput with interleaved I/O.

This patch introduces  Early Queue Merge (EQM), a unified mechanism to get a
sequential  read pattern  with both  types of  processes. The  main idea is
checking newly arrived requests against the next request of the active queue
both in case of actual request insert and in case of request merge. By doing
so, both the types of processes can be handled by just merging their queues.
EQM is  then simpler and  more compact than the  pair of mechanisms used in
CFQ.

Finally, EQM  also preserves the  typical low-latency properties of BFQ, by
properly restoring the weight-raising state of a queue when it gets back to
a non-merged state.

Signed-off-by: Mauro Andreolini <mauro.andreolini@unimore.it>
Signed-off-by: Arianna Avanzini <avanzini@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
Signed-off-by: Linus Walleij <linus.walleij@linaro.org>
---
 block/bfq-cgroup.c  |   5 +
 block/bfq-iosched.c | 685 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
 block/bfq.h         |  66 +++++
 3 files changed, 743 insertions(+), 13 deletions(-)

diff --git a/block/bfq-cgroup.c b/block/bfq-cgroup.c
index 8b08a5758565..03679962d5c0 100644
--- a/block/bfq-cgroup.c
+++ b/block/bfq-cgroup.c
@@ -440,6 +440,7 @@ static void bfq_pd_init(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
 				   */
 	bfqg->bfqd = bfqd;
 	bfqg->active_entities = 0;
+	bfqg->rq_pos_tree = RB_ROOT;
 }
 
 static void bfq_pd_free(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
@@ -533,6 +534,9 @@ static struct bfq_group *bfq_find_alloc_group(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 	return bfqg;
 }
 
+static void bfq_pos_tree_add_move(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+				  struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
+
 /**
  * bfq_bfqq_move - migrate @bfqq to @bfqg.
  * @bfqd: queue descriptor.
@@ -580,6 +584,7 @@ static void bfq_bfqq_move(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 	bfqg_get(bfqg);
 
 	if (busy) {
+		bfq_pos_tree_add_move(bfqd, bfqq);
 		if (resume)
 			bfq_activate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
 	}
diff --git a/block/bfq-iosched.c b/block/bfq-iosched.c
index 85e216905a5d..cf3e9b1800c9 100644
--- a/block/bfq-iosched.c
+++ b/block/bfq-iosched.c
@@ -295,6 +295,72 @@ static struct request *bfq_choose_req(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 	}
 }
 
+static struct bfq_queue *
+bfq_rq_pos_tree_lookup(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct rb_root *root,
+		     sector_t sector, struct rb_node **ret_parent,
+		     struct rb_node ***rb_link)
+{
+	struct rb_node **p, *parent;
+	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = NULL;
+
+	parent = NULL;
+	p = &root->rb_node;
+	while (*p) {
+		struct rb_node **n;
+
+		parent = *p;
+		bfqq = rb_entry(parent, struct bfq_queue, pos_node);
+
+		/*
+		 * Sort strictly based on sector. Smallest to the left,
+		 * largest to the right.
+		 */
+		if (sector > blk_rq_pos(bfqq->next_rq))
+			n = &(*p)->rb_right;
+		else if (sector < blk_rq_pos(bfqq->next_rq))
+			n = &(*p)->rb_left;
+		else
+			break;
+		p = n;
+		bfqq = NULL;
+	}
+
+	*ret_parent = parent;
+	if (rb_link)
+		*rb_link = p;
+
+	bfq_log(bfqd, "rq_pos_tree_lookup %llu: returning %d",
+		(unsigned long long) sector,
+		bfqq ? bfqq->pid : 0);
+
+	return bfqq;
+}
+
+static void bfq_pos_tree_add_move(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	struct rb_node **p, *parent;
+	struct bfq_queue *__bfqq;
+
+	if (bfqq->pos_root) {
+		rb_erase(&bfqq->pos_node, bfqq->pos_root);
+		bfqq->pos_root = NULL;
+	}
+
+	if (bfq_class_idle(bfqq))
+		return;
+	if (!bfqq->next_rq)
+		return;
+
+	bfqq->pos_root = &bfq_bfqq_to_bfqg(bfqq)->rq_pos_tree;
+	__bfqq = bfq_rq_pos_tree_lookup(bfqd, bfqq->pos_root,
+			blk_rq_pos(bfqq->next_rq), &parent, &p);
+	if (!__bfqq) {
+		rb_link_node(&bfqq->pos_node, parent, p);
+		rb_insert_color(&bfqq->pos_node, bfqq->pos_root);
+	} else
+		bfqq->pos_root = NULL;
+}
+
 /*
  * Tell whether there are active queues or groups with differentiated weights.
  */
@@ -527,6 +593,57 @@ static unsigned int bfq_wr_duration(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 	return dur;
 }
 
+static unsigned int bfq_bfqq_cooperations(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	return bfqq->bic ? bfqq->bic->cooperations : 0;
+}
+
+static void
+bfq_bfqq_resume_state(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
+{
+	if (bic->saved_idle_window)
+		bfq_mark_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+	else
+		bfq_clear_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+	if (bic->saved_IO_bound)
+		bfq_mark_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+	else
+		bfq_clear_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+	/* Assuming that the flag in_large_burst is already correctly set */
+	if (bic->wr_time_left && bfqq->bfqd->low_latency &&
+	    !bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq) &&
+	    bic->cooperations < bfqq->bfqd->bfq_coop_thresh) {
+		/*
+		 * Start a weight raising period with the duration given by
+		 * the raising_time_left snapshot.
+		 */
+		if (bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq))
+			bfqq->bfqd->wr_busy_queues++;
+		bfqq->wr_coeff = bfqq->bfqd->bfq_wr_coeff;
+		bfqq->wr_cur_max_time = bic->wr_time_left;
+		bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = jiffies;
+		bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
+	}
+	/*
+	 * Clear wr_time_left to prevent bfq_bfqq_save_state() from
+	 * getting confused about the queue's need of a weight-raising
+	 * period.
+	 */
+	bic->wr_time_left = 0;
+}
+
+static int bfqq_process_refs(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	int process_refs, io_refs;
+
+	lockdep_assert_held(bfqq->bfqd->queue->queue_lock);
+
+	io_refs = bfqq->allocated[READ] + bfqq->allocated[WRITE];
+	process_refs = atomic_read(&bfqq->ref) - io_refs - bfqq->entity.on_st;
+	BUG_ON(process_refs < 0);
+	return process_refs;
+}
+
 /* Empty burst list and add just bfqq (see comments to bfq_handle_burst) */
 static void bfq_reset_burst_list(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 {
@@ -763,8 +880,14 @@ static void bfq_add_request(struct request *rq)
 	BUG_ON(!next_rq);
 	bfqq->next_rq = next_rq;
 
+	/*
+	 * Adjust priority tree position, if next_rq changes.
+	 */
+	if (prev != bfqq->next_rq)
+		bfq_pos_tree_add_move(bfqd, bfqq);
+
 	if (!bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq)) {
-		bool soft_rt, in_burst,
+		bool soft_rt, coop_or_in_burst,
 		     idle_for_long_time = time_is_before_jiffies(
 						bfqq->budget_timeout +
 						bfqd->bfq_wr_min_idle_time);
@@ -792,11 +915,12 @@ static void bfq_add_request(struct request *rq)
 				bfqd->last_ins_in_burst = jiffies;
 		}
 
-		in_burst = bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
+		coop_or_in_burst = bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq) ||
+			bfq_bfqq_cooperations(bfqq) >= bfqd->bfq_coop_thresh;
 		soft_rt = bfqd->bfq_wr_max_softrt_rate > 0 &&
-			!in_burst &&
+			!coop_or_in_burst &&
 			time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->soft_rt_next_start);
-		interactive = !in_burst && idle_for_long_time;
+		interactive = !coop_or_in_burst && idle_for_long_time;
 		entity->budget = max_t(unsigned long, bfqq->max_budget,
 				       bfq_serv_to_charge(next_rq, bfqq));
 
@@ -815,6 +939,9 @@ static void bfq_add_request(struct request *rq)
 		if (!bfqd->low_latency)
 			goto add_bfqq_busy;
 
+		if (bfq_bfqq_just_split(bfqq))
+			goto set_prio_changed;
+
 		/*
 		 * If the queue:
 		 * - is not being boosted,
@@ -839,7 +966,7 @@ static void bfq_add_request(struct request *rq)
 		} else if (old_wr_coeff > 1) {
 			if (interactive)
 				bfqq->wr_cur_max_time = bfq_wr_duration(bfqd);
-			else if (in_burst ||
+			else if (coop_or_in_burst ||
 				 (bfqq->wr_cur_max_time ==
 				  bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time &&
 				  !soft_rt)) {
@@ -904,6 +1031,7 @@ static void bfq_add_request(struct request *rq)
 					bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time;
 			}
 		}
+set_prio_changed:
 		if (old_wr_coeff != bfqq->wr_coeff)
 			entity->prio_changed = 1;
 add_bfqq_busy:
@@ -1046,6 +1174,15 @@ static void bfq_merged_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *req,
 					 bfqd->last_position);
 		BUG_ON(!next_rq);
 		bfqq->next_rq = next_rq;
+		/*
+		 * If next_rq changes, update both the queue's budget to
+		 * fit the new request and the queue's position in its
+		 * rq_pos_tree.
+		 */
+		if (prev != bfqq->next_rq) {
+			bfq_updated_next_req(bfqd, bfqq);
+			bfq_pos_tree_add_move(bfqd, bfqq);
+		}
 	}
 }
 
@@ -1128,11 +1265,346 @@ static void bfq_end_wr(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 	spin_unlock_irq(bfqd->queue->queue_lock);
 }
 
+static sector_t bfq_io_struct_pos(void *io_struct, bool request)
+{
+	if (request)
+		return blk_rq_pos(io_struct);
+	else
+		return ((struct bio *)io_struct)->bi_iter.bi_sector;
+}
+
+static int bfq_rq_close_to_sector(void *io_struct, bool request,
+				  sector_t sector)
+{
+	return abs(bfq_io_struct_pos(io_struct, request) - sector) <=
+	       BFQQ_SEEK_THR;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_queue *bfqq_find_close(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+					 struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+					 sector_t sector)
+{
+	struct rb_root *root = &bfq_bfqq_to_bfqg(bfqq)->rq_pos_tree;
+	struct rb_node *parent, *node;
+	struct bfq_queue *__bfqq;
+
+	if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(root))
+		return NULL;
+
+	/*
+	 * First, if we find a request starting at the end of the last
+	 * request, choose it.
+	 */
+	__bfqq = bfq_rq_pos_tree_lookup(bfqd, root, sector, &parent, NULL);
+	if (__bfqq)
+		return __bfqq;
+
+	/*
+	 * If the exact sector wasn't found, the parent of the NULL leaf
+	 * will contain the closest sector (rq_pos_tree sorted by
+	 * next_request position).
+	 */
+	__bfqq = rb_entry(parent, struct bfq_queue, pos_node);
+	if (bfq_rq_close_to_sector(__bfqq->next_rq, true, sector))
+		return __bfqq;
+
+	if (blk_rq_pos(__bfqq->next_rq) < sector)
+		node = rb_next(&__bfqq->pos_node);
+	else
+		node = rb_prev(&__bfqq->pos_node);
+	if (!node)
+		return NULL;
+
+	__bfqq = rb_entry(node, struct bfq_queue, pos_node);
+	if (bfq_rq_close_to_sector(__bfqq->next_rq, true, sector))
+		return __bfqq;
+
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_queue *bfq_find_close_cooperator(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+						   struct bfq_queue *cur_bfqq,
+						   sector_t sector)
+{
+	struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+
+	/*
+	 * We shall notice if some of the queues are cooperating,
+	 * e.g., working closely on the same area of the device. In
+	 * that case, we can group them together and: 1) don't waste
+	 * time idling, and 2) serve the union of their requests in
+	 * the best possible order for throughput.
+	 */
+	bfqq = bfqq_find_close(bfqd, cur_bfqq, sector);
+	if (!bfqq || bfqq == cur_bfqq)
+		return NULL;
+
+	return bfqq;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_queue *
+bfq_setup_merge(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_queue *new_bfqq)
+{
+	int process_refs, new_process_refs;
+	struct bfq_queue *__bfqq;
+
+	/*
+	 * If there are no process references on the new_bfqq, then it is
+	 * unsafe to follow the ->new_bfqq chain as other bfqq's in the chain
+	 * may have dropped their last reference (not just their last process
+	 * reference).
+	 */
+	if (!bfqq_process_refs(new_bfqq))
+		return NULL;
+
+	/* Avoid a circular list and skip interim queue merges. */
+	while ((__bfqq = new_bfqq->new_bfqq)) {
+		if (__bfqq == bfqq)
+			return NULL;
+		new_bfqq = __bfqq;
+	}
+
+	process_refs = bfqq_process_refs(bfqq);
+	new_process_refs = bfqq_process_refs(new_bfqq);
+	/*
+	 * If the process for the bfqq has gone away, there is no
+	 * sense in merging the queues.
+	 */
+	if (process_refs == 0 || new_process_refs == 0)
+		return NULL;
+
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "scheduling merge with queue %d",
+		new_bfqq->pid);
+
+	/*
+	 * Merging is just a redirection: the requests of the process
+	 * owning one of the two queues are redirected to the other queue.
+	 * The latter queue, in its turn, is set as shared if this is the
+	 * first time that the requests of some process are redirected to
+	 * it.
+	 *
+	 * We redirect bfqq to new_bfqq and not the opposite, because we
+	 * are in the context of the process owning bfqq, hence we have
+	 * the io_cq of this process. So we can immediately configure this
+	 * io_cq to redirect the requests of the process to new_bfqq.
+	 *
+	 * NOTE, even if new_bfqq coincides with the in-service queue, the
+	 * io_cq of new_bfqq is not available, because, if the in-service
+	 * queue is shared, bfqd->in_service_bic may not point to the
+	 * io_cq of the in-service queue.
+	 * Redirecting the requests of the process owning bfqq to the
+	 * currently in-service queue is in any case the best option, as
+	 * we feed the in-service queue with new requests close to the
+	 * last request served and, by doing so, hopefully increase the
+	 * throughput.
+	 */
+	bfqq->new_bfqq = new_bfqq;
+	atomic_add(process_refs, &new_bfqq->ref);
+	return new_bfqq;
+}
+
+static bool bfq_may_be_close_cooperator(struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+					struct bfq_queue *new_bfqq)
+{
+	if (bfq_class_idle(bfqq) || bfq_class_idle(new_bfqq) ||
+	    (bfqq->ioprio_class != new_bfqq->ioprio_class))
+		return false;
+
+	/*
+	 * If either of the queues has already been detected as seeky,
+	 * then merging it with the other queue is unlikely to lead to
+	 * sequential I/O.
+	 */
+	if (BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq) || BFQQ_SEEKY(new_bfqq))
+		return false;
+
+	/*
+	 * Interleaved I/O is known to be done by (some) applications
+	 * only for reads, so it does not make sense to merge async
+	 * queues.
+	 */
+	if (!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) || !bfq_bfqq_sync(new_bfqq))
+		return false;
+
+	return true;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Attempt to schedule a merge of bfqq with the currently in-service queue
+ * or with a close queue among the scheduled queues.
+ * Return NULL if no merge was scheduled, a pointer to the shared bfq_queue
+ * structure otherwise.
+ *
+ * The OOM queue is not allowed to participate to cooperation: in fact, since
+ * the requests temporarily redirected to the OOM queue could be redirected
+ * again to dedicated queues at any time, the state needed to correctly
+ * handle merging with the OOM queue would be quite complex and expensive
+ * to maintain. Besides, in such a critical condition as an out of memory,
+ * the benefits of queue merging may be little relevant, or even negligible.
+ */
+static struct bfq_queue *
+bfq_setup_cooperator(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+		     void *io_struct, bool request)
+{
+	struct bfq_queue *in_service_bfqq, *new_bfqq;
+
+	if (bfqq->new_bfqq)
+		return bfqq->new_bfqq;
+	if (!io_struct || unlikely(bfqq == &bfqd->oom_bfqq))
+		return NULL;
+	/* If device has only one backlogged bfq_queue, don't search. */
+	if (bfqd->busy_queues == 1)
+		return NULL;
+
+	in_service_bfqq = bfqd->in_service_queue;
+
+	if (!in_service_bfqq || in_service_bfqq == bfqq ||
+	    !bfqd->in_service_bic ||
+	    unlikely(in_service_bfqq == &bfqd->oom_bfqq))
+		goto check_scheduled;
+
+	if (bfq_rq_close_to_sector(io_struct, request, bfqd->last_position) &&
+	    bfqq->entity.parent == in_service_bfqq->entity.parent &&
+	    bfq_may_be_close_cooperator(bfqq, in_service_bfqq)) {
+		new_bfqq = bfq_setup_merge(bfqq, in_service_bfqq);
+		if (new_bfqq)
+			return new_bfqq;
+	}
+	/*
+	 * Check whether there is a cooperator among currently scheduled
+	 * queues. The only thing we need is that the bio/request is not
+	 * NULL, as we need it to establish whether a cooperator exists.
+	 */
+check_scheduled:
+	new_bfqq = bfq_find_close_cooperator(bfqd, bfqq,
+			bfq_io_struct_pos(io_struct, request));
+
+	BUG_ON(new_bfqq && bfqq->entity.parent != new_bfqq->entity.parent);
+
+	if (new_bfqq && likely(new_bfqq != &bfqd->oom_bfqq) &&
+	    bfq_may_be_close_cooperator(bfqq, new_bfqq))
+		return bfq_setup_merge(bfqq, new_bfqq);
+
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+static void bfq_bfqq_save_state(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	/*
+	 * If !bfqq->bic, the queue is already shared or its requests
+	 * have already been redirected to a shared queue; both idle window
+	 * and weight raising state have already been saved. Do nothing.
+	 */
+	if (!bfqq->bic)
+		return;
+	if (bfqq->bic->wr_time_left)
+		/*
+		 * This is the queue of a just-started process, and would
+		 * deserve weight raising: we set wr_time_left to the full
+		 * weight-raising duration to trigger weight-raising when
+		 * and if the queue is split and the first request of the
+		 * queue is enqueued.
+		 */
+		bfqq->bic->wr_time_left = bfq_wr_duration(bfqq->bfqd);
+	else if (bfqq->wr_coeff > 1) {
+		unsigned long wr_duration =
+			jiffies - bfqq->last_wr_start_finish;
+		/*
+		 * It may happen that a queue's weight raising period lasts
+		 * longer than its wr_cur_max_time, as weight raising is
+		 * handled only when a request is enqueued or dispatched (it
+		 * does not use any timer). If the weight raising period is
+		 * about to end, don't save it.
+		 */
+		if (bfqq->wr_cur_max_time <= wr_duration)
+			bfqq->bic->wr_time_left = 0;
+		else
+			bfqq->bic->wr_time_left =
+				bfqq->wr_cur_max_time - wr_duration;
+		/*
+		 * The bfq_queue is becoming shared or the requests of the
+		 * process owning the queue are being redirected to a shared
+		 * queue. Stop the weight raising period of the queue, as in
+		 * both cases it should not be owned by an interactive or
+		 * soft real-time application.
+		 */
+		bfq_bfqq_end_wr(bfqq);
+	} else
+		bfqq->bic->wr_time_left = 0;
+	bfqq->bic->saved_idle_window = bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+	bfqq->bic->saved_IO_bound = bfq_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+	bfqq->bic->saved_in_large_burst = bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
+	bfqq->bic->was_in_burst_list = !hlist_unhashed(&bfqq->burst_list_node);
+	bfqq->bic->cooperations++;
+	bfqq->bic->failed_cooperations = 0;
+}
+
+static void bfq_get_bic_reference(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	/*
+	 * If bfqq->bic has a non-NULL value, the bic to which it belongs
+	 * is about to begin using a shared bfq_queue.
+	 */
+	if (bfqq->bic)
+		atomic_long_inc(&bfqq->bic->icq.ioc->refcount);
+}
+
+static void
+bfq_merge_bfqqs(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_io_cq *bic,
+		struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_queue *new_bfqq)
+{
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "merging with queue %lu",
+		     (unsigned long) new_bfqq->pid);
+	/* Save weight raising and idle window of the merged queues */
+	bfq_bfqq_save_state(bfqq);
+	bfq_bfqq_save_state(new_bfqq);
+	if (bfq_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq))
+		bfq_mark_bfqq_IO_bound(new_bfqq);
+	bfq_clear_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+	/*
+	 * Grab a reference to the bic, to prevent it from being destroyed
+	 * before being possibly touched by a bfq_split_bfqq().
+	 */
+	bfq_get_bic_reference(bfqq);
+	bfq_get_bic_reference(new_bfqq);
+	/*
+	 * Merge queues (that is, let bic redirect its requests to new_bfqq)
+	 */
+	bic_set_bfqq(bic, new_bfqq, 1);
+	bfq_mark_bfqq_coop(new_bfqq);
+	/*
+	 * new_bfqq now belongs to at least two bics (it is a shared queue):
+	 * set new_bfqq->bic to NULL. bfqq either:
+	 * - does not belong to any bic any more, and hence bfqq->bic must
+	 *   be set to NULL, or
+	 * - is a queue whose owning bics have already been redirected to a
+	 *   different queue, hence the queue is destined to not belong to
+	 *   any bic soon and bfqq->bic is already NULL (therefore the next
+	 *   assignment causes no harm).
+	 */
+	new_bfqq->bic = NULL;
+	bfqq->bic = NULL;
+	bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+}
+
+static void bfq_bfqq_increase_failed_cooperations(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	struct bfq_io_cq *bic = bfqq->bic;
+	struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
+
+	if (bic && bfq_bfqq_cooperations(bfqq) >= bfqd->bfq_coop_thresh) {
+		bic->failed_cooperations++;
+		if (bic->failed_cooperations >= bfqd->bfq_failed_cooperations)
+			bic->cooperations = 0;
+	}
+}
+
 static int bfq_allow_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 			   struct bio *bio)
 {
 	struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
 	struct bfq_io_cq *bic;
+	struct bfq_queue *bfqq, *new_bfqq;
 
 	/*
 	 * Disallow merge of a sync bio into an async request.
@@ -1149,7 +1621,26 @@ static int bfq_allow_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 	if (!bic)
 		return 0;
 
-	return bic_to_bfqq(bic, bfq_bio_sync(bio)) == RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+	bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, bfq_bio_sync(bio));
+	/*
+	 * We take advantage of this function to perform an early merge
+	 * of the queues of possible cooperating processes.
+	 */
+	if (bfqq) {
+		new_bfqq = bfq_setup_cooperator(bfqd, bfqq, bio, false);
+		if (new_bfqq) {
+			bfq_merge_bfqqs(bfqd, bic, bfqq, new_bfqq);
+			/*
+			 * If we get here, the bio will be queued in the
+			 * shared queue, i.e., new_bfqq, so use new_bfqq
+			 * to decide whether bio and rq can be merged.
+			 */
+			bfqq = new_bfqq;
+		} else
+			bfq_bfqq_increase_failed_cooperations(bfqq);
+	}
+
+	return bfqq == RQ_BFQQ(rq);
 }
 
 static void __bfq_set_in_service_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
@@ -1350,6 +1841,15 @@ static void __bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 
 	__bfq_bfqd_reset_in_service(bfqd);
 
+	/*
+	 * If this bfqq is shared between multiple processes, check
+	 * to make sure that those processes are still issuing I/Os
+	 * within the mean seek distance. If not, it may be time to
+	 * break the queues apart again.
+	 */
+	if (bfq_bfqq_coop(bfqq) && BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq))
+		bfq_mark_bfqq_split_coop(bfqq);
+
 	if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list)) {
 		/*
 		 * Overloading budget_timeout field to store the time
@@ -1358,8 +1858,13 @@ static void __bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 		 */
 		bfqq->budget_timeout = jiffies;
 		bfq_del_bfqq_busy(bfqd, bfqq, 1);
-	} else
+	} else {
 		bfq_activate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+		/*
+		 * Resort priority tree of potential close cooperators.
+		 */
+		bfq_pos_tree_add_move(bfqd, bfqq);
+	}
 }
 
 /**
@@ -2246,10 +2751,12 @@ static void bfq_update_wr_data(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 		/*
 		 * If the queue was activated in a burst, or
 		 * too much time has elapsed from the beginning
-		 * of this weight-raising period, then end weight
-		 * raising.
+		 * of this weight-raising period, or the queue has
+		 * exceeded the acceptable number of cooperations,
+		 * then end weight raising.
 		 */
 		if (bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq) ||
+		    bfq_bfqq_cooperations(bfqq) >= bfqd->bfq_coop_thresh ||
 		    time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->last_wr_start_finish +
 					   bfqq->wr_cur_max_time)) {
 			bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = jiffies;
@@ -2478,6 +2985,25 @@ static void bfq_put_queue(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 #endif
 }
 
+static void bfq_put_cooperator(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	struct bfq_queue *__bfqq, *next;
+
+	/*
+	 * If this queue was scheduled to merge with another queue, be
+	 * sure to drop the reference taken on that queue (and others in
+	 * the merge chain). See bfq_setup_merge and bfq_merge_bfqqs.
+	 */
+	__bfqq = bfqq->new_bfqq;
+	while (__bfqq) {
+		if (__bfqq == bfqq)
+			break;
+		next = __bfqq->new_bfqq;
+		bfq_put_queue(__bfqq);
+		__bfqq = next;
+	}
+}
+
 static void bfq_exit_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 {
 	if (bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue) {
@@ -2488,6 +3014,8 @@ static void bfq_exit_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "exit_bfqq: %p, %d", bfqq,
 		     atomic_read(&bfqq->ref));
 
+	bfq_put_cooperator(bfqq);
+
 	bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
 }
 
@@ -2496,6 +3024,25 @@ static void bfq_init_icq(struct io_cq *icq)
 	struct bfq_io_cq *bic = icq_to_bic(icq);
 
 	bic->ttime.last_end_request = jiffies;
+	/*
+	 * A newly created bic indicates that the process has just
+	 * started doing I/O, and is probably mapping into memory its
+	 * executable and libraries: it definitely needs weight raising.
+	 * There is however the possibility that the process performs,
+	 * for a while, I/O close to some other process. EQM intercepts
+	 * this behavior and may merge the queue corresponding to the
+	 * process  with some other queue, BEFORE the weight of the queue
+	 * is raised. Merged queues are not weight-raised (they are assumed
+	 * to belong to processes that benefit only from high throughput).
+	 * If the merge is basically the consequence of an accident, then
+	 * the queue will be split soon and will get back its old weight.
+	 * It is then important to write down somewhere that this queue
+	 * does need weight raising, even if it did not make it to get its
+	 * weight raised before being merged. To this purpose, we overload
+	 * the field raising_time_left and assign 1 to it, to mark the queue
+	 * as needing weight raising.
+	 */
+	bic->wr_time_left = 1;
 }
 
 static void bfq_exit_icq(struct io_cq *icq)
@@ -2509,6 +3056,13 @@ static void bfq_exit_icq(struct io_cq *icq)
 	}
 
 	if (bic->bfqq[BLK_RW_SYNC]) {
+		/*
+		 * If the bic is using a shared queue, put the reference
+		 * taken on the io_context when the bic started using a
+		 * shared bfq_queue.
+		 */
+		if (bfq_bfqq_coop(bic->bfqq[BLK_RW_SYNC]))
+			put_io_context(icq->ioc);
 		bfq_exit_bfqq(bfqd, bic->bfqq[BLK_RW_SYNC]);
 		bic->bfqq[BLK_RW_SYNC] = NULL;
 	}
@@ -2814,6 +3368,10 @@ static void bfq_update_idle_window(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 	if (!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) || bfq_class_idle(bfqq))
 		return;
 
+	/* Idle window just restored, statistics are meaningless. */
+	if (bfq_bfqq_just_split(bfqq))
+		return;
+
 	enable_idle = bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
 
 	if (atomic_read(&bic->icq.ioc->active_ref) == 0 ||
@@ -2861,6 +3419,7 @@ static void bfq_rq_enqueued(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 	if (bfqq->entity.service > bfq_max_budget(bfqd) / 8 ||
 	    !BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq))
 		bfq_update_idle_window(bfqd, bfqq, bic);
+	bfq_clear_bfqq_just_split(bfqq);
 
 	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
 		     "rq_enqueued: idle_window=%d (seeky %d, mean %llu)",
@@ -2925,12 +3484,47 @@ static void bfq_rq_enqueued(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 static void bfq_insert_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
 {
 	struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
-	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
+	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq), *new_bfqq;
 
 	assert_spin_locked(bfqd->queue->queue_lock);
 
+	/*
+	 * An unplug may trigger a requeue of a request from the device
+	 * driver: make sure we are in process context while trying to
+	 * merge two bfq_queues.
+	 */
+	if (!in_interrupt()) {
+		new_bfqq = bfq_setup_cooperator(bfqd, bfqq, rq, true);
+		if (new_bfqq) {
+			if (bic_to_bfqq(RQ_BIC(rq), 1) != bfqq)
+				new_bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(RQ_BIC(rq), 1);
+			/*
+			 * Release the request's reference to the old bfqq
+			 * and make sure one is taken to the shared queue.
+			 */
+			new_bfqq->allocated[rq_data_dir(rq)]++;
+			bfqq->allocated[rq_data_dir(rq)]--;
+			atomic_inc(&new_bfqq->ref);
+			bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+			if (bic_to_bfqq(RQ_BIC(rq), 1) == bfqq)
+				bfq_merge_bfqqs(bfqd, RQ_BIC(rq),
+						bfqq, new_bfqq);
+			rq->elv.priv[1] = new_bfqq;
+			bfqq = new_bfqq;
+		} else
+			bfq_bfqq_increase_failed_cooperations(bfqq);
+	}
+
 	bfq_add_request(rq);
 
+	/*
+	 * Here a newly-created bfq_queue has already started a weight-raising
+	 * period: clear raising_time_left to prevent bfq_bfqq_save_state()
+	 * from assigning it a full weight-raising period. See the detailed
+	 * comments about this field in bfq_init_icq().
+	 */
+	if (bfqq->bic)
+		bfqq->bic->wr_time_left = 0;
 	rq->fifo_time = jiffies + bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[rq_is_sync(rq)];
 	list_add_tail(&rq->queuelist, &bfqq->fifo);
 
@@ -3098,6 +3692,32 @@ static void bfq_put_request(struct request *rq)
 	}
 }
 
+/*
+ * Returns NULL if a new bfqq should be allocated, or the old bfqq if this
+ * was the last process referring to said bfqq.
+ */
+static struct bfq_queue *
+bfq_split_bfqq(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "splitting queue");
+
+	put_io_context(bic->icq.ioc);
+
+	if (bfqq_process_refs(bfqq) == 1) {
+		bfqq->pid = current->pid;
+		bfq_clear_bfqq_coop(bfqq);
+		bfq_clear_bfqq_split_coop(bfqq);
+		return bfqq;
+	}
+
+	bic_set_bfqq(bic, NULL, 1);
+
+	bfq_put_cooperator(bfqq);
+
+	bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+	return NULL;
+}
+
 /*
  * Allocate bfq data structures associated with this request.
  */
@@ -3110,6 +3730,7 @@ static int bfq_set_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 	const int is_sync = rq_is_sync(rq);
 	struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
 	unsigned long flags;
+	bool split = false;
 
 	might_sleep_if(gfpflags_allow_blocking(gfp_mask));
 
@@ -3122,15 +3743,30 @@ static int bfq_set_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 
 	bfq_bic_update_cgroup(bic, bio);
 
+new_queue:
 	bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, is_sync);
 	if (!bfqq || bfqq == &bfqd->oom_bfqq) {
 		bfqq = bfq_get_queue(bfqd, bio, is_sync, bic, gfp_mask);
 		bic_set_bfqq(bic, bfqq, is_sync);
-		if (is_sync) {
-			if (bfqd->large_burst)
+		if (split && is_sync) {
+			if ((bic->was_in_burst_list && bfqd->large_burst) ||
+			    bic->saved_in_large_burst)
 				bfq_mark_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
-			else
+			else {
 				bfq_clear_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
+				if (bic->was_in_burst_list)
+					hlist_add_head(&bfqq->burst_list_node,
+						       &bfqd->burst_list);
+			}
+		}
+	} else {
+		/* If the queue was seeky for too long, break it apart. */
+		if (bfq_bfqq_coop(bfqq) && bfq_bfqq_split_coop(bfqq)) {
+			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "breaking apart bfqq");
+			bfqq = bfq_split_bfqq(bic, bfqq);
+			split = true;
+			if (!bfqq)
+				goto new_queue;
 		}
 	}
 
@@ -3142,6 +3778,26 @@ static int bfq_set_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 	rq->elv.priv[0] = bic;
 	rq->elv.priv[1] = bfqq;
 
+	/*
+	 * If a bfq_queue has only one process reference, it is owned
+	 * by only one bfq_io_cq: we can set the bic field of the
+	 * bfq_queue to the address of that structure. Also, if the
+	 * queue has just been split, mark a flag so that the
+	 * information is available to the other scheduler hooks.
+	 */
+	if (likely(bfqq != &bfqd->oom_bfqq) && bfqq_process_refs(bfqq) == 1) {
+		bfqq->bic = bic;
+		if (split) {
+			bfq_mark_bfqq_just_split(bfqq);
+			/*
+			 * If the queue has just been split from a shared
+			 * queue, restore the idle window and the possible
+			 * weight raising period.
+			 */
+			bfq_bfqq_resume_state(bfqq, bic);
+		}
+	}
+
 	spin_unlock_irqrestore(q->queue_lock, flags);
 
 	return 0;
@@ -3295,6 +3951,7 @@ static void bfq_init_root_group(struct bfq_group *root_group,
 	root_group->my_entity = NULL;
 	root_group->bfqd = bfqd;
 #endif
+	root_group->rq_pos_tree = RB_ROOT;
 	for (i = 0; i < BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES; i++)
 		root_group->sched_data.service_tree[i] = BFQ_SERVICE_TREE_INIT;
 }
@@ -3375,6 +4032,8 @@ static int bfq_init_queue(struct request_queue *q, struct elevator_type *e)
 	bfqd->bfq_timeout[BLK_RW_ASYNC] = bfq_timeout_async;
 	bfqd->bfq_timeout[BLK_RW_SYNC] = bfq_timeout_sync;
 
+	bfqd->bfq_coop_thresh = 2;
+	bfqd->bfq_failed_cooperations = 7000;
 	bfqd->bfq_requests_within_timer = 120;
 
 	bfqd->bfq_large_burst_thresh = 11;
diff --git a/block/bfq.h b/block/bfq.h
index 2bf54ae89ff0..fcce85528377 100644
--- a/block/bfq.h
+++ b/block/bfq.h
@@ -183,6 +183,8 @@ struct bfq_group;
  *                    ioprio_class value.
  * @new_bfqq: shared bfq_queue if queue is cooperating with
  *           one or more other queues.
+ * @pos_node: request-position tree member (see bfq_group's @rq_pos_tree).
+ * @pos_root: request-position tree root (see bfq_group's @rq_pos_tree).
  * @sort_list: sorted list of pending requests.
  * @next_rq: if fifo isn't expired, next request to serve.
  * @queued: nr of requests queued in @sort_list.
@@ -304,6 +306,26 @@ struct bfq_ttime {
  * @ttime: associated @bfq_ttime struct
  * @ioprio: per (request_queue, blkcg) ioprio.
  * @blkcg_id: id of the blkcg the related io_cq belongs to.
+ * @wr_time_left: snapshot of the time left before weight raising ends
+ *                for the sync queue associated to this process; this
+ *		  snapshot is taken to remember this value while the weight
+ *		  raising is suspended because the queue is merged with a
+ *		  shared queue, and is used to set @raising_cur_max_time
+ *		  when the queue is split from the shared queue and its
+ *		  weight is raised again
+ * @saved_idle_window: same purpose as the previous field for the idle
+ *                     window
+ * @saved_IO_bound: same purpose as the previous two fields for the I/O
+ *                  bound classification of a queue
+ * @saved_in_large_burst: same purpose as the previous fields for the
+ *                        value of the field keeping the queue's belonging
+ *                        to a large burst
+ * @was_in_burst_list: true if the queue belonged to a burst list
+ *                     before its merge with another cooperating queue
+ * @cooperations: counter of consecutive successful queue merges underwent
+ *                by any of the process' @bfq_queues
+ * @failed_cooperations: counter of consecutive failed queue merges of any
+ *                       of the process' @bfq_queues
  */
 struct bfq_io_cq {
 	struct io_cq icq; /* must be the first member */
@@ -314,6 +336,16 @@ struct bfq_io_cq {
 #ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 	uint64_t blkcg_id; /* the current blkcg ID */
 #endif
+
+	unsigned int wr_time_left;
+	bool saved_idle_window;
+	bool saved_IO_bound;
+
+	bool saved_in_large_burst;
+	bool was_in_burst_list;
+
+	unsigned int cooperations;
+	unsigned int failed_cooperations;
 };
 
 enum bfq_device_speed {
@@ -557,6 +589,9 @@ enum bfqq_state_flags {
 					 * may need softrt-next-start
 					 * update
 					 */
+	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_coop,		/* bfqq is shared */
+	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_split_coop,	/* shared bfqq will be split */
+	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_just_split,	/* queue has just been split */
 };
 
 #define BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(name)						\
@@ -583,6 +618,9 @@ BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(budget_new);
 BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(IO_bound);
 BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(in_large_burst);
 BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(constantly_seeky);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(coop);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(split_coop);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(just_split);
 BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(softrt_update);
 #undef BFQ_BFQQ_FNS
 
@@ -675,6 +713,9 @@ struct bfq_group_data {
  *                   are groups with more than one active @bfq_entity
  *                   (see the comments to the function
  *                   bfq_bfqq_must_not_expire()).
+ * @rq_pos_tree: rbtree sorted by next_request position, used when
+ *               determining if two or more queues have interleaving
+ *               requests (see bfq_find_close_cooperator()).
  *
  * Each (device, cgroup) pair has its own bfq_group, i.e., for each cgroup
  * there is a set of bfq_groups, each one collecting the lower-level
@@ -701,6 +742,8 @@ struct bfq_group {
 
 	int active_entities;
 
+	struct rb_root rq_pos_tree;
+
 	struct bfqg_stats stats;
 	struct bfqg_stats dead_stats;	/* stats pushed from dead children */
 };
@@ -711,6 +754,8 @@ struct bfq_group {
 
 	struct bfq_queue *async_bfqq[2][IOPRIO_BE_NR];
 	struct bfq_queue *async_idle_bfqq;
+
+	struct rb_root rq_pos_tree;
 };
 #endif
 
@@ -787,6 +832,27 @@ static void bfq_put_bfqd_unlock(struct bfq_data *bfqd, unsigned long *flags)
 	spin_unlock_irqrestore(bfqd->queue->queue_lock, *flags);
 }
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+
+static struct bfq_group *bfq_bfqq_to_bfqg(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	struct bfq_entity *group_entity = bfqq->entity.parent;
+
+	if (!group_entity)
+		group_entity = &bfqq->bfqd->root_group->entity;
+
+	return container_of(group_entity, struct bfq_group, entity);
+}
+
+#else
+
+static struct bfq_group *bfq_bfqq_to_bfqg(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	return bfqq->bfqd->root_group;
+}
+
+#endif
+
 static void bfq_check_ioprio_change(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bio *bio);
 static void bfq_put_queue(struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
 static void bfq_dispatch_insert(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq);