summaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
path: root/sys-kernel/boest-v4.9.135/0020-Turn-into-BFQ-v8r7-for-4.9.0.patch
blob: 4e5e98cdfc9e60f80e4e3380108fdc3f3f907438 (plain) (blame)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
2765
2766
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785
2786
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2803
2804
2805
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
2841
2842
2843
2844
2845
2846
2847
2848
2849
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
2855
2856
2857
2858
2859
2860
2861
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866
2867
2868
2869
2870
2871
2872
2873
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886
2887
2888
2889
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
2897
2898
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2905
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915
2916
2917
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2923
2924
2925
2926
2927
2928
2929
2930
2931
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936
2937
2938
2939
2940
2941
2942
2943
2944
2945
2946
2947
2948
2949
2950
2951
2952
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976
2977
2978
2979
2980
2981
2982
2983
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991
2992
2993
2994
2995
2996
2997
2998
2999
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005
3006
3007
3008
3009
3010
3011
3012
3013
3014
3015
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3031
3032
3033
3034
3035
3036
3037
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048
3049
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3071
3072
3073
3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3093
3094
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
3100
3101
3102
3103
3104
3105
3106
3107
3108
3109
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115
3116
3117
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122
3123
3124
3125
3126
3127
3128
3129
3130
3131
3132
3133
3134
3135
3136
3137
3138
3139
3140
3141
3142
3143
3144
3145
3146
3147
3148
3149
3150
3151
3152
3153
3154
3155
3156
3157
3158
3159
3160
3161
3162
3163
3164
3165
3166
3167
3168
3169
3170
3171
3172
3173
3174
3175
3176
3177
3178
3179
3180
3181
3182
3183
3184
3185
3186
3187
3188
3189
3190
3191
3192
3193
3194
3195
3196
3197
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
3225
3226
3227
3228
3229
3230
3231
3232
3233
3234
3235
3236
3237
3238
3239
3240
3241
3242
3243
3244
3245
3246
3247
3248
3249
3250
3251
3252
3253
3254
3255
3256
3257
3258
3259
3260
3261
3262
3263
3264
3265
3266
3267
3268
3269
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279
3280
3281
3282
3283
3284
3285
3286
3287
3288
3289
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297
3298
3299
3300
3301
3302
3303
3304
3305
3306
3307
3308
3309
3310
3311
3312
3313
3314
3315
3316
3317
3318
3319
3320
3321
3322
3323
3324
3325
3326
3327
3328
3329
3330
3331
3332
3333
3334
3335
3336
3337
3338
3339
3340
3341
3342
3343
3344
3345
3346
3347
3348
3349
3350
3351
3352
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357
3358
3359
3360
3361
3362
3363
3364
3365
3366
3367
3368
3369
3370
3371
3372
3373
3374
3375
3376
3377
3378
3379
3380
3381
3382
3383
3384
3385
3386
3387
3388
3389
3390
3391
3392
3393
3394
3395
3396
3397
3398
3399
3400
3401
3402
3403
3404
3405
3406
3407
3408
3409
3410
3411
3412
3413
3414
3415
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420
3421
3422
3423
3424
3425
3426
3427
3428
3429
3430
3431
3432
3433
3434
3435
3436
3437
3438
3439
3440
3441
3442
3443
3444
3445
3446
3447
3448
3449
3450
3451
3452
3453
3454
3455
3456
3457
3458
3459
3460
3461
3462
3463
3464
3465
3466
3467
3468
3469
3470
3471
3472
3473
3474
3475
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491
3492
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499
3500
3501
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507
3508
3509
3510
3511
3512
3513
3514
3515
3516
3517
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524
3525
3526
3527
3528
3529
3530
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535
3536
3537
3538
3539
3540
3541
3542
3543
3544
3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3557
3558
3559
3560
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569
3570
3571
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580
3581
3582
3583
3584
3585
3586
3587
3588
3589
3590
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607
3608
3609
3610
3611
3612
3613
3614
3615
3616
3617
3618
3619
3620
3621
3622
3623
3624
3625
3626
3627
3628
3629
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636
3637
3638
3639
3640
3641
3642
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647
3648
3649
3650
3651
3652
3653
3654
3655
3656
3657
3658
3659
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667
3668
3669
3670
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686
3687
3688
3689
3690
3691
3692
3693
3694
3695
3696
3697
3698
3699
3700
3701
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706
3707
3708
3709
3710
3711
3712
3713
3714
3715
3716
3717
3718
3719
3720
3721
3722
3723
3724
3725
3726
3727
3728
3729
3730
3731
3732
3733
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
3739
3740
3741
3742
3743
3744
3745
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750
3751
3752
3753
3754
3755
3756
3757
3758
3759
3760
3761
3762
3763
3764
3765
3766
3767
3768
3769
3770
3771
3772
3773
3774
3775
3776
3777
3778
3779
3780
3781
3782
3783
3784
3785
3786
3787
3788
3789
3790
3791
3792
3793
3794
3795
3796
3797
3798
3799
3800
3801
3802
3803
3804
3805
3806
3807
3808
3809
3810
3811
3812
3813
3814
3815
3816
3817
3818
3819
3820
3821
3822
3823
3824
3825
3826
3827
3828
3829
3830
3831
3832
3833
3834
3835
3836
3837
3838
3839
3840
3841
3842
3843
3844
3845
3846
3847
3848
3849
3850
3851
3852
3853
3854
3855
3856
3857
3858
3859
3860
3861
3862
3863
3864
3865
3866
3867
3868
3869
3870
3871
3872
3873
3874
3875
3876
3877
3878
3879
3880
3881
3882
3883
3884
3885
3886
3887
3888
3889
3890
3891
3892
3893
3894
3895
3896
3897
3898
3899
3900
3901
3902
3903
3904
3905
3906
3907
3908
3909
3910
3911
3912
3913
3914
3915
3916
3917
3918
3919
3920
3921
3922
3923
3924
3925
3926
3927
3928
3929
3930
3931
3932
3933
3934
3935
3936
3937
3938
3939
3940
3941
3942
3943
3944
3945
3946
3947
3948
3949
3950
3951
3952
3953
3954
3955
3956
3957
3958
3959
3960
3961
3962
3963
3964
3965
3966
3967
3968
3969
3970
3971
3972
3973
3974
3975
3976
3977
3978
3979
3980
3981
3982
3983
3984
3985
3986
3987
3988
3989
3990
3991
3992
3993
3994
3995
3996
3997
3998
3999
4000
4001
4002
4003
4004
4005
4006
4007
4008
4009
4010
4011
4012
4013
4014
4015
4016
4017
4018
4019
4020
4021
4022
4023
4024
4025
4026
4027
4028
4029
4030
4031
4032
4033
4034
4035
4036
4037
4038
4039
4040
4041
4042
4043
4044
4045
4046
4047
4048
4049
4050
4051
4052
4053
4054
4055
4056
4057
4058
4059
4060
4061
4062
4063
4064
4065
4066
4067
4068
4069
4070
4071
4072
4073
4074
4075
4076
4077
4078
4079
4080
4081
4082
4083
4084
4085
4086
4087
4088
4089
4090
4091
4092
4093
4094
4095
4096
4097
4098
4099
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117
4118
4119
4120
4121
4122
4123
4124
4125
4126
4127
4128
4129
4130
4131
4132
4133
4134
4135
4136
4137
4138
4139
4140
4141
4142
4143
4144
4145
4146
4147
4148
4149
4150
4151
4152
4153
4154
4155
4156
4157
4158
4159
4160
4161
4162
4163
4164
4165
4166
4167
4168
4169
4170
4171
4172
4173
4174
4175
4176
4177
4178
4179
4180
4181
4182
4183
4184
4185
4186
4187
4188
4189
4190
4191
4192
4193
4194
4195
4196
4197
4198
4199
4200
4201
4202
4203
4204
4205
4206
4207
4208
4209
4210
4211
4212
4213
4214
4215
4216
4217
4218
4219
4220
4221
4222
4223
4224
4225
4226
4227
4228
4229
4230
4231
4232
4233
4234
4235
4236
4237
4238
4239
4240
4241
4242
4243
4244
4245
4246
4247
4248
4249
4250
4251
4252
4253
4254
4255
4256
4257
4258
4259
4260
4261
4262
4263
4264
4265
4266
4267
4268
4269
4270
4271
4272
4273
4274
4275
4276
4277
4278
4279
4280
4281
4282
4283
4284
4285
4286
4287
4288
4289
4290
4291
4292
4293
4294
4295
4296
4297
4298
4299
4300
4301
4302
4303
4304
4305
4306
4307
4308
4309
4310
4311
4312
4313
4314
4315
4316
4317
4318
4319
4320
4321
4322
4323
4324
4325
4326
4327
4328
4329
4330
4331
4332
4333
4334
4335
4336
4337
4338
4339
4340
4341
4342
4343
4344
4345
4346
4347
4348
4349
4350
4351
4352
4353
4354
4355
4356
4357
4358
4359
4360
4361
4362
4363
4364
4365
4366
4367
4368
4369
4370
4371
4372
4373
4374
4375
4376
4377
4378
4379
4380
4381
4382
4383
4384
4385
4386
4387
4388
4389
4390
4391
4392
4393
4394
4395
4396
4397
4398
4399
4400
4401
4402
4403
4404
4405
4406
4407
4408
4409
4410
4411
4412
4413
4414
4415
4416
4417
4418
4419
4420
4421
4422
4423
4424
4425
4426
4427
4428
4429
4430
4431
4432
4433
4434
4435
4436
4437
4438
4439
4440
4441
4442
4443
4444
4445
4446
4447
4448
4449
4450
4451
4452
4453
4454
4455
4456
4457
4458
4459
4460
4461
4462
4463
4464
4465
4466
4467
4468
4469
4470
4471
4472
4473
4474
4475
4476
4477
4478
4479
4480
4481
4482
4483
4484
4485
4486
4487
4488
4489
4490
4491
4492
4493
4494
4495
4496
4497
4498
4499
4500
4501
4502
4503
4504
4505
4506
4507
4508
4509
4510
4511
4512
4513
4514
4515
4516
4517
4518
4519
4520
4521
4522
4523
4524
4525
4526
4527
4528
4529
4530
4531
4532
4533
4534
4535
4536
4537
4538
4539
4540
4541
4542
4543
4544
4545
4546
4547
4548
4549
4550
4551
4552
4553
4554
4555
4556
4557
4558
4559
4560
4561
4562
4563
4564
4565
4566
4567
4568
4569
4570
4571
4572
4573
4574
4575
4576
4577
4578
4579
4580
4581
4582
4583
4584
4585
4586
4587
4588
4589
4590
4591
4592
4593
4594
4595
4596
4597
4598
4599
4600
4601
4602
4603
4604
4605
4606
4607
4608
4609
4610
4611
4612
4613
4614
4615
4616
4617
4618
4619
4620
4621
4622
4623
4624
4625
4626
4627
4628
4629
4630
4631
4632
4633
4634
4635
4636
4637
4638
4639
4640
4641
4642
4643
4644
4645
4646
4647
4648
4649
4650
4651
4652
4653
4654
4655
4656
4657
4658
4659
4660
4661
4662
4663
4664
4665
4666
4667
4668
4669
4670
4671
4672
4673
4674
4675
4676
4677
4678
4679
4680
4681
4682
4683
4684
4685
4686
4687
4688
4689
4690
4691
4692
4693
4694
4695
4696
4697
4698
4699
4700
4701
4702
4703
4704
4705
4706
4707
4708
4709
4710
4711
4712
4713
4714
4715
4716
4717
4718
4719
4720
4721
4722
4723
4724
4725
4726
4727
4728
4729
4730
4731
4732
4733
4734
4735
4736
4737
4738
4739
4740
4741
4742
4743
4744
4745
4746
4747
4748
4749
4750
4751
4752
4753
4754
4755
4756
4757
4758
4759
4760
4761
4762
4763
4764
4765
4766
4767
4768
4769
4770
4771
4772
4773
4774
4775
4776
4777
4778
4779
4780
4781
4782
4783
4784
4785
4786
4787
4788
4789
4790
4791
4792
4793
4794
4795
4796
4797
4798
4799
4800
4801
4802
4803
4804
4805
4806
4807
4808
4809
4810
4811
4812
4813
4814
4815
4816
4817
4818
4819
4820
4821
4822
4823
4824
4825
4826
4827
4828
4829
4830
4831
4832
4833
4834
4835
4836
4837
4838
4839
4840
4841
4842
4843
4844
4845
4846
4847
4848
4849
4850
4851
4852
4853
4854
4855
4856
4857
4858
4859
4860
4861
4862
4863
4864
4865
4866
4867
4868
4869
4870
4871
4872
4873
4874
4875
4876
4877
4878
4879
4880
4881
4882
4883
4884
4885
4886
4887
4888
4889
4890
4891
4892
4893
4894
4895
4896
4897
4898
4899
4900
4901
4902
4903
4904
4905
4906
4907
4908
4909
4910
4911
4912
4913
4914
4915
4916
4917
4918
4919
4920
4921
4922
4923
4924
4925
4926
4927
4928
4929
4930
4931
4932
4933
4934
4935
4936
4937
4938
4939
4940
4941
4942
4943
4944
4945
4946
4947
4948
4949
4950
4951
4952
4953
4954
4955
4956
4957
4958
4959
4960
4961
4962
4963
4964
4965
4966
4967
4968
4969
4970
4971
4972
4973
4974
4975
4976
4977
4978
4979
4980
4981
4982
4983
4984
4985
4986
4987
4988
4989
4990
4991
4992
4993
4994
4995
4996
4997
4998
4999
5000
5001
5002
5003
5004
5005
5006
5007
5008
5009
5010
5011
5012
5013
5014
5015
5016
5017
5018
5019
5020
5021
5022
5023
5024
5025
5026
5027
5028
5029
5030
5031
5032
5033
5034
5035
5036
5037
5038
5039
5040
5041
5042
5043
5044
5045
5046
5047
5048
5049
5050
5051
5052
5053
5054
5055
5056
5057
5058
5059
5060
5061
5062
5063
5064
5065
5066
5067
5068
5069
5070
5071
5072
5073
5074
5075
5076
5077
5078
5079
5080
5081
5082
5083
5084
5085
5086
5087
5088
5089
5090
5091
5092
5093
5094
5095
5096
5097
5098
5099
5100
5101
5102
5103
5104
5105
5106
5107
5108
5109
5110
5111
5112
5113
5114
5115
5116
5117
5118
5119
5120
5121
5122
5123
5124
5125
5126
5127
5128
5129
5130
5131
5132
5133
5134
5135
5136
5137
5138
5139
5140
5141
5142
5143
5144
5145
5146
5147
5148
5149
5150
5151
5152
5153
5154
5155
5156
5157
5158
5159
5160
5161
5162
5163
5164
5165
5166
5167
5168
5169
5170
5171
5172
5173
5174
5175
5176
5177
5178
5179
5180
5181
5182
5183
5184
5185
5186
5187
5188
5189
5190
5191
5192
5193
5194
5195
5196
5197
5198
5199
5200
5201
5202
5203
5204
5205
5206
5207
5208
5209
5210
5211
5212
5213
5214
5215
5216
5217
5218
5219
5220
5221
5222
5223
5224
5225
5226
5227
5228
5229
5230
5231
5232
5233
5234
5235
5236
5237
5238
5239
5240
5241
5242
5243
5244
5245
5246
5247
5248
5249
5250
5251
5252
5253
5254
5255
5256
5257
5258
5259
5260
5261
5262
5263
5264
5265
5266
5267
5268
5269
5270
5271
5272
5273
5274
5275
5276
5277
5278
5279
5280
5281
5282
5283
5284
5285
5286
5287
5288
5289
5290
5291
5292
5293
5294
5295
5296
5297
5298
5299
5300
5301
5302
5303
5304
5305
5306
5307
5308
5309
5310
5311
5312
5313
5314
5315
5316
5317
5318
5319
5320
5321
5322
5323
5324
5325
5326
5327
5328
5329
5330
5331
5332
5333
5334
5335
5336
5337
5338
5339
5340
5341
5342
5343
5344
5345
5346
5347
5348
5349
5350
5351
5352
5353
5354
5355
5356
5357
5358
5359
5360
5361
5362
5363
5364
5365
5366
5367
5368
5369
5370
5371
5372
5373
5374
5375
5376
5377
5378
5379
5380
5381
5382
5383
5384
5385
5386
5387
5388
5389
5390
5391
5392
5393
5394
5395
5396
5397
5398
5399
5400
5401
5402
5403
5404
5405
5406
5407
5408
5409
5410
5411
5412
5413
5414
5415
5416
5417
5418
5419
5420
5421
5422
5423
5424
5425
5426
5427
5428
5429
5430
5431
5432
5433
5434
5435
5436
5437
5438
5439
5440
5441
5442
5443
5444
5445
5446
5447
5448
5449
5450
5451
5452
5453
5454
5455
5456
5457
5458
5459
5460
5461
5462
5463
5464
5465
5466
5467
5468
5469
5470
5471
5472
5473
5474
5475
5476
5477
5478
5479
5480
5481
5482
5483
5484
5485
5486
5487
5488
5489
5490
5491
5492
5493
5494
5495
5496
5497
5498
5499
5500
5501
5502
5503
5504
5505
5506
5507
5508
5509
5510
5511
5512
5513
5514
5515
5516
5517
5518
5519
5520
5521
5522
5523
5524
5525
5526
5527
5528
5529
5530
5531
5532
5533
5534
5535
5536
5537
5538
5539
5540
5541
5542
5543
5544
5545
5546
5547
5548
5549
5550
5551
5552
5553
5554
5555
5556
5557
5558
5559
5560
5561
5562
5563
5564
5565
5566
5567
5568
5569
5570
5571
5572
5573
5574
5575
5576
5577
5578
5579
5580
5581
5582
5583
5584
5585
5586
5587
5588
5589
5590
5591
5592
5593
5594
5595
5596
5597
5598
5599
5600
5601
5602
5603
5604
5605
5606
5607
5608
5609
5610
5611
5612
5613
5614
5615
5616
5617
5618
5619
5620
5621
5622
5623
5624
5625
5626
5627
5628
5629
5630
5631
5632
5633
5634
5635
5636
5637
5638
5639
5640
5641
5642
5643
5644
5645
5646
5647
5648
5649
5650
5651
5652
5653
5654
5655
5656
5657
5658
5659
5660
5661
5662
5663
5664
5665
5666
5667
5668
5669
5670
5671
5672
5673
5674
5675
5676
5677
5678
5679
5680
5681
5682
5683
5684
5685
5686
5687
5688
5689
5690
5691
5692
5693
5694
5695
5696
5697
5698
5699
5700
5701
5702
5703
5704
5705
5706
5707
5708
5709
5710
5711
5712
5713
5714
5715
5716
5717
5718
5719
5720
5721
5722
5723
5724
5725
5726
5727
5728
5729
5730
5731
5732
5733
5734
5735
5736
5737
5738
5739
5740
5741
5742
5743
5744
5745
5746
5747
5748
5749
5750
5751
5752
5753
5754
5755
5756
5757
5758
5759
5760
5761
5762
5763
5764
5765
5766
5767
5768
5769
5770
5771
5772
5773
5774
5775
5776
5777
5778
5779
5780
5781
5782
5783
5784
5785
5786
5787
5788
5789
5790
5791
5792
5793
5794
5795
5796
5797
5798
5799
5800
5801
5802
5803
5804
5805
5806
5807
5808
5809
5810
5811
5812
5813
5814
5815
5816
5817
5818
5819
5820
5821
5822
5823
5824
5825
5826
5827
5828
5829
5830
5831
5832
5833
5834
5835
5836
5837
5838
5839
5840
5841
5842
5843
5844
5845
5846
5847
5848
5849
5850
5851
5852
5853
5854
5855
5856
5857
5858
5859
5860
5861
5862
5863
5864
5865
5866
5867
5868
5869
5870
5871
5872
5873
5874
5875
5876
5877
5878
5879
5880
5881
5882
5883
5884
5885
5886
5887
5888
5889
5890
5891
5892
5893
5894
5895
5896
5897
5898
5899
5900
5901
5902
5903
5904
5905
5906
5907
5908
5909
5910
5911
5912
5913
5914
5915
5916
5917
5918
5919
5920
5921
5922
5923
5924
5925
5926
5927
5928
5929
5930
5931
5932
5933
5934
5935
5936
5937
5938
5939
5940
5941
5942
5943
5944
5945
5946
5947
5948
5949
5950
5951
5952
5953
5954
5955
5956
5957
5958
5959
5960
5961
5962
5963
5964
5965
5966
5967
5968
5969
5970
5971
5972
5973
5974
5975
5976
5977
5978
5979
5980
5981
5982
5983
5984
5985
5986
5987
5988
5989
5990
5991
5992
5993
5994
5995
5996
5997
5998
5999
6000
6001
6002
6003
6004
6005
6006
6007
6008
6009
6010
6011
6012
6013
6014
6015
6016
6017
6018
6019
6020
6021
6022
6023
6024
6025
6026
6027
6028
6029
6030
6031
6032
6033
6034
6035
6036
6037
6038
6039
6040
6041
6042
6043
6044
6045
6046
6047
6048
6049
6050
6051
6052
6053
6054
6055
6056
6057
6058
6059
6060
6061
6062
6063
6064
6065
6066
6067
6068
6069
6070
6071
6072
6073
6074
6075
6076
6077
6078
6079
6080
6081
6082
6083
6084
6085
6086
6087
6088
6089
6090
6091
6092
6093
6094
6095
6096
6097
6098
6099
6100
6101
6102
6103
6104
6105
6106
6107
6108
6109
6110
6111
6112
6113
6114
6115
6116
6117
6118
6119
6120
6121
6122
6123
6124
6125
6126
6127
6128
6129
6130
6131
6132
6133
6134
6135
6136
6137
6138
6139
6140
6141
6142
6143
6144
6145
6146
6147
6148
6149
6150
6151
6152
6153
6154
6155
6156
6157
6158
6159
6160
6161
6162
6163
6164
6165
6166
6167
6168
6169
6170
6171
6172
6173
6174
6175
6176
6177
6178
6179
6180
6181
6182
6183
6184
6185
6186
6187
6188
6189
6190
6191
6192
6193
6194
6195
6196
6197
6198
6199
6200
6201
6202
6203
6204
6205
6206
6207
6208
6209
6210
6211
6212
6213
6214
6215
6216
6217
6218
6219
6220
6221
6222
6223
6224
6225
6226
6227
6228
6229
6230
6231
6232
6233
6234
6235
6236
6237
6238
6239
6240
6241
6242
6243
6244
6245
6246
6247
6248
6249
6250
6251
6252
6253
6254
6255
6256
6257
6258
6259
6260
6261
6262
6263
6264
6265
6266
6267
6268
6269
6270
6271
6272
6273
6274
6275
6276
6277
6278
6279
6280
6281
6282
6283
6284
6285
6286
6287
6288
6289
6290
6291
6292
6293
6294
6295
6296
6297
6298
6299
6300
6301
6302
6303
6304
6305
6306
6307
6308
6309
6310
6311
6312
6313
6314
6315
6316
6317
6318
6319
6320
6321
6322
6323
6324
6325
6326
6327
6328
6329
6330
6331
6332
6333
6334
6335
6336
6337
6338
6339
6340
6341
6342
6343
6344
6345
6346
6347
6348
6349
6350
6351
6352
6353
6354
6355
6356
6357
6358
6359
6360
6361
6362
6363
6364
6365
6366
6367
6368
6369
6370
6371
6372
6373
6374
6375
6376
6377
6378
6379
6380
6381
6382
6383
6384
6385
6386
6387
6388
6389
6390
6391
6392
6393
6394
6395
6396
6397
6398
6399
6400
6401
6402
6403
6404
6405
6406
6407
6408
6409
6410
6411
6412
6413
6414
6415
6416
6417
6418
6419
6420
6421
6422
6423
6424
6425
6426
6427
6428
6429
6430
6431
6432
6433
6434
6435
6436
6437
6438
6439
6440
6441
6442
6443
6444
6445
6446
6447
6448
6449
6450
6451
6452
6453
6454
6455
6456
6457
6458
6459
6460
6461
6462
6463
6464
6465
6466
6467
6468
6469
6470
6471
6472
6473
6474
6475
6476
6477
6478
6479
6480
6481
6482
6483
6484
6485
6486
6487
6488
6489
6490
6491
6492
6493
6494
6495
6496
6497
6498
6499
6500
6501
6502
6503
6504
6505
6506
6507
6508
6509
6510
6511
6512
6513
6514
6515
6516
6517
6518
6519
6520
6521
6522
6523
6524
6525
6526
6527
6528
6529
6530
6531
6532
6533
6534
6535
6536
6537
6538
6539
6540
6541
6542
6543
6544
6545
6546
6547
6548
6549
6550
6551
6552
6553
6554
6555
6556
6557
6558
6559
6560
6561
6562
6563
6564
6565
6566
6567
6568
6569
6570
6571
6572
6573
6574
6575
6576
6577
6578
6579
6580
6581
6582
6583
6584
6585
6586
6587
6588
6589
6590
6591
6592
6593
6594
6595
6596
6597
6598
6599
6600
6601
6602
6603
6604
6605
6606
6607
6608
6609
6610
6611
6612
6613
6614
6615
6616
6617
6618
6619
6620
6621
6622
6623
6624
6625
6626
6627
6628
6629
6630
6631
6632
6633
6634
6635
6636
6637
6638
6639
6640
6641
6642
6643
6644
6645
6646
6647
6648
6649
6650
6651
6652
6653
6654
6655
6656
6657
6658
6659
6660
6661
6662
6663
6664
6665
6666
6667
6668
6669
6670
6671
6672
6673
6674
6675
6676
6677
6678
6679
6680
6681
6682
6683
6684
6685
6686
6687
6688
6689
6690
6691
6692
6693
6694
6695
6696
6697
6698
6699
6700
6701
6702
6703
6704
6705
6706
6707
6708
6709
6710
6711
6712
6713
6714
6715
6716
6717
6718
6719
6720
6721
6722
6723
6724
6725
6726
6727
6728
6729
6730
6731
6732
6733
6734
6735
6736
6737
6738
6739
6740
6741
6742
6743
6744
6745
6746
6747
6748
6749
6750
6751
6752
6753
6754
6755
6756
6757
6758
6759
6760
6761
6762
6763
6764
6765
6766
6767
6768
6769
6770
6771
6772
6773
6774
6775
6776
6777
6778
6779
6780
6781
6782
6783
6784
6785
6786
6787
6788
6789
6790
6791
6792
6793
6794
6795
6796
6797
6798
6799
6800
6801
6802
6803
6804
6805
6806
6807
6808
6809
6810
6811
6812
6813
6814
6815
6816
6817
6818
6819
6820
6821
6822
6823
6824
6825
6826
6827
6828
6829
6830
6831
6832
6833
6834
6835
6836
6837
6838
6839
6840
6841
6842
6843
6844
6845
6846
6847
6848
6849
6850
6851
6852
6853
6854
6855
6856
6857
6858
6859
6860
6861
6862
6863
6864
6865
6866
6867
6868
6869
6870
6871
6872
6873
6874
6875
6876
6877
6878
6879
6880
6881
6882
6883
6884
6885
6886
6887
6888
6889
6890
6891
6892
6893
6894
6895
6896
6897
6898
6899
6900
6901
6902
6903
6904
6905
6906
6907
6908
6909
6910
6911
6912
6913
6914
6915
6916
6917
6918
6919
6920
6921
6922
6923
6924
6925
6926
6927
6928
6929
6930
6931
6932
6933
6934
6935
6936
6937
6938
6939
6940
6941
6942
6943
6944
6945
6946
6947
6948
6949
6950
6951
6952
6953
6954
6955
6956
6957
6958
6959
6960
6961
6962
6963
6964
6965
6966
6967
6968
6969
6970
6971
6972
6973
6974
6975
6976
6977
6978
6979
6980
6981
6982
6983
6984
6985
6986
6987
6988
6989
6990
6991
6992
6993
6994
6995
6996
6997
6998
6999
7000
7001
7002
7003
7004
7005
7006
7007
7008
7009
7010
7011
7012
7013
7014
7015
7016
7017
7018
7019
7020
7021
7022
7023
7024
7025
7026
7027
7028
7029
7030
7031
7032
7033
7034
7035
7036
7037
7038
7039
7040
7041
7042
7043
7044
7045
7046
7047
7048
7049
7050
7051
7052
7053
7054
7055
7056
7057
7058
7059
7060
7061
7062
7063
7064
7065
7066
7067
7068
7069
7070
7071
7072
7073
7074
7075
7076
7077
7078
7079
7080
7081
7082
7083
7084
7085
7086
7087
7088
7089
7090
7091
7092
7093
7094
7095
7096
7097
7098
7099
7100
7101
7102
7103
7104
7105
7106
7107
7108
7109
7110
7111
7112
7113
7114
7115
7116
7117
7118
7119
7120
7121
7122
7123
7124
7125
7126
7127
7128
7129
7130
7131
7132
7133
7134
7135
7136
7137
7138
7139
7140
7141
7142
7143
7144
7145
7146
7147
7148
7149
7150
7151
7152
7153
7154
7155
7156
7157
7158
7159
7160
7161
7162
7163
7164
7165
7166
7167
7168
7169
7170
7171
7172
7173
7174
7175
7176
7177
7178
7179
7180
7181
7182
7183
7184
7185
7186
7187
7188
7189
7190
7191
7192
7193
7194
7195
7196
7197
7198
7199
7200
7201
7202
7203
7204
7205
7206
7207
7208
7209
7210
7211
7212
7213
7214
7215
7216
7217
7218
7219
7220
7221
7222
7223
7224
7225
7226
7227
7228
7229
7230
7231
7232
7233
7234
7235
7236
7237
7238
7239
7240
7241
7242
7243
7244
7245
7246
7247
7248
7249
7250
7251
7252
7253
7254
7255
7256
7257
7258
7259
7260
7261
7262
7263
7264
7265
7266
7267
7268
7269
7270
7271
7272
7273
7274
7275
7276
7277
7278
7279
7280
7281
7282
7283
7284
7285
7286
7287
7288
7289
7290
7291
7292
7293
7294
7295
7296
7297
7298
7299
7300
7301
7302
7303
7304
7305
7306
7307
7308
7309
7310
7311
7312
7313
7314
7315
7316
7317
7318
7319
7320
7321
7322
7323
7324
7325
7326
7327
7328
7329
7330
7331
7332
7333
7334
7335
7336
7337
7338
7339
7340
7341
7342
7343
7344
7345
7346
7347
7348
7349
7350
7351
7352
7353
7354
7355
7356
7357
7358
7359
7360
7361
7362
7363
7364
7365
7366
7367
7368
7369
7370
7371
7372
7373
7374
7375
7376
7377
7378
7379
7380
7381
7382
7383
7384
7385
7386
7387
7388
7389
7390
7391
7392
7393
7394
7395
7396
7397
7398
7399
7400
7401
7402
7403
7404
7405
7406
7407
7408
7409
7410
7411
7412
7413
7414
7415
7416
7417
7418
7419
7420
7421
7422
7423
7424
7425
7426
7427
7428
7429
7430
7431
7432
7433
7434
7435
7436
7437
7438
7439
7440
7441
7442
7443
7444
7445
7446
7447
7448
7449
7450
7451
7452
7453
7454
7455
7456
7457
7458
7459
7460
7461
7462
7463
7464
7465
7466
7467
7468
7469
7470
7471
7472
7473
7474
7475
7476
7477
7478
7479
7480
7481
7482
7483
7484
7485
7486
7487
7488
7489
7490
7491
7492
7493
7494
7495
7496
7497
7498
7499
7500
7501
7502
7503
7504
7505
7506
7507
7508
7509
7510
7511
7512
7513
7514
7515
7516
7517
7518
7519
7520
7521
7522
7523
7524
7525
7526
7527
7528
7529
7530
7531
7532
7533
7534
7535
7536
7537
7538
7539
7540
7541
7542
7543
7544
7545
7546
7547
7548
7549
7550
7551
7552
7553
7554
7555
7556
7557
7558
7559
7560
7561
7562
7563
7564
7565
7566
7567
7568
7569
7570
7571
7572
7573
7574
7575
7576
7577
7578
7579
7580
7581
7582
7583
7584
7585
7586
7587
7588
7589
7590
7591
7592
7593
7594
7595
7596
7597
7598
7599
7600
7601
7602
7603
7604
7605
7606
7607
7608
7609
7610
7611
7612
7613
7614
7615
7616
7617
7618
7619
7620
7621
7622
7623
7624
7625
7626
7627
7628
7629
7630
7631
7632
7633
7634
7635
7636
7637
7638
7639
7640
7641
7642
7643
7644
7645
7646
7647
7648
7649
7650
7651
7652
7653
7654
7655
7656
7657
7658
7659
7660
7661
7662
7663
7664
7665
7666
7667
7668
7669
7670
7671
7672
7673
7674
7675
7676
7677
7678
7679
7680
7681
7682
7683
7684
7685
7686
7687
7688
7689
7690
7691
7692
7693
7694
7695
7696
7697
7698
7699
7700
7701
7702
7703
7704
7705
7706
7707
7708
7709
7710
7711
7712
7713
7714
7715
7716
7717
7718
7719
7720
7721
7722
7723
7724
7725
7726
7727
7728
7729
7730
7731
7732
7733
7734
7735
7736
7737
7738
7739
7740
7741
7742
7743
7744
7745
7746
7747
7748
7749
7750
7751
7752
7753
7754
7755
7756
7757
7758
7759
7760
7761
7762
7763
7764
7765
7766
7767
7768
7769
7770
7771
7772
7773
7774
7775
7776
7777
7778
7779
7780
7781
7782
7783
7784
7785
7786
7787
7788
7789
7790
7791
7792
7793
7794
7795
7796
7797
7798
7799
7800
7801
7802
7803
7804
7805
7806
7807
7808
7809
7810
7811
7812
7813
7814
7815
7816
7817
7818
7819
7820
7821
7822
7823
7824
7825
7826
7827
7828
7829
7830
7831
7832
7833
7834
7835
7836
7837
7838
7839
7840
7841
7842
7843
7844
7845
7846
7847
7848
7849
7850
7851
7852
7853
7854
7855
7856
7857
7858
7859
7860
7861
7862
7863
7864
7865
7866
7867
7868
7869
7870
7871
7872
7873
7874
7875
7876
7877
7878
7879
7880
7881
7882
7883
7884
7885
7886
7887
7888
7889
7890
7891
7892
7893
7894
7895
7896
7897
7898
7899
7900
7901
7902
7903
7904
7905
7906
7907
7908
7909
7910
7911
7912
7913
7914
7915
7916
7917
7918
7919
7920
7921
7922
7923
7924
7925
7926
7927
7928
7929
7930
7931
7932
7933
7934
7935
7936
7937
7938
7939
7940
7941
7942
7943
7944
7945
7946
7947
7948
7949
7950
7951
7952
7953
7954
7955
7956
7957
7958
7959
7960
7961
7962
7963
7964
7965
7966
7967
7968
7969
7970
7971
7972
7973
7974
7975
7976
7977
7978
7979
7980
7981
7982
7983
7984
7985
7986
7987
7988
7989
7990
7991
7992
7993
7994
7995
7996
7997
7998
7999
8000
8001
8002
8003
8004
8005
8006
8007
8008
8009
8010
8011
8012
8013
8014
8015
8016
8017
8018
8019
8020
8021
8022
8023
8024
8025
8026
8027
8028
8029
8030
8031
8032
8033
8034
8035
8036
8037
8038
8039
8040
8041
8042
8043
8044
8045
8046
8047
8048
8049
8050
8051
8052
8053
8054
8055
8056
8057
8058
8059
8060
8061
8062
8063
8064
8065
8066
8067
8068
8069
8070
8071
8072
8073
8074
8075
8076
8077
8078
8079
8080
8081
8082
8083
8084
8085
8086
8087
8088
8089
8090
8091
8092
8093
8094
8095
8096
8097
8098
8099
8100
8101
8102
8103
8104
8105
8106
8107
8108
8109
8110
8111
8112
8113
8114
8115
8116
8117
8118
8119
8120
8121
8122
8123
8124
8125
8126
8127
8128
8129
8130
8131
8132
8133
8134
8135
8136
8137
8138
8139
8140
8141
8142
8143
8144
8145
8146
8147
8148
8149
8150
8151
8152
8153
8154
8155
8156
8157
8158
8159
8160
8161
8162
8163
8164
8165
8166
8167
8168
8169
8170
8171
8172
8173
8174
8175
8176
8177
8178
8179
8180
8181
8182
8183
8184
8185
8186
8187
8188
8189
8190
8191
8192
8193
8194
8195
8196
8197
8198
8199
8200
8201
8202
8203
8204
8205
8206
8207
8208
8209
8210
8211
8212
8213
8214
8215
8216
8217
8218
8219
8220
8221
8222
8223
8224
8225
8226
8227
8228
8229
8230
8231
8232
8233
8234
8235
8236
8237
8238
8239
8240
8241
8242
8243
8244
8245
8246
8247
8248
8249
8250
8251
8252
8253
8254
8255
8256
8257
8258
8259
8260
8261
8262
8263
8264
8265
8266
8267
8268
8269
8270
8271
8272
8273
8274
8275
8276
8277
8278
8279
8280
8281
8282
8283
8284
8285
8286
8287
8288
8289
8290
8291
8292
8293
8294
8295
8296
8297
8298
8299
8300
8301
8302
8303
8304
8305
8306
8307
8308
8309
8310
8311
8312
8313
8314
8315
8316
8317
8318
8319
8320
8321
8322
8323
8324
8325
8326
8327
8328
8329
8330
8331
8332
8333
8334
8335
8336
8337
8338
8339
8340
8341
8342
8343
8344
8345
8346
8347
8348
8349
8350
8351
8352
8353
8354
8355
8356
8357
8358
8359
8360
8361
8362
8363
8364
8365
8366
8367
8368
8369
8370
8371
8372
8373
8374
8375
8376
8377
8378
8379
8380
8381
8382
8383
8384
8385
8386
8387
8388
8389
8390
8391
8392
8393
8394
8395
8396
8397
8398
8399
8400
8401
8402
8403
8404
8405
8406
8407
8408
8409
8410
8411
8412
8413
8414
8415
8416
8417
8418
8419
8420
8421
8422
8423
8424
8425
8426
8427
8428
8429
8430
8431
8432
8433
8434
8435
8436
8437
8438
8439
8440
8441
8442
8443
8444
8445
8446
8447
8448
8449
8450
8451
8452
8453
8454
8455
8456
8457
8458
8459
8460
8461
8462
8463
8464
8465
8466
8467
8468
8469
8470
8471
8472
8473
8474
8475
8476
8477
8478
8479
8480
8481
8482
8483
8484
8485
8486
8487
8488
8489
8490
8491
8492
8493
8494
8495
8496
8497
8498
8499
8500
8501
8502
8503
8504
8505
8506
8507
8508
8509
8510
8511
8512
8513
8514
8515
8516
8517
8518
8519
8520
8521
8522
8523
8524
8525
8526
8527
8528
8529
8530
8531
8532
8533
8534
8535
8536
8537
8538
8539
8540
8541
8542
8543
8544
8545
8546
8547
8548
8549
8550
8551
8552
8553
8554
8555
8556
8557
8558
8559
8560
8561
8562
8563
8564
8565
8566
8567
8568
8569
8570
8571
8572
8573
8574
8575
8576
8577
8578
8579
8580
8581
8582
8583
8584
8585
8586
8587
8588
8589
8590
8591
8592
8593
8594
8595
8596
8597
8598
8599
8600
8601
8602
8603
8604
8605
8606
8607
8608
8609
8610
8611
8612
8613
8614
8615
8616
8617
8618
8619
8620
8621
8622
8623
8624
8625
8626
8627
8628
8629
8630
8631
8632
8633
8634
8635
8636
8637
8638
8639
8640
8641
8642
8643
8644
8645
8646
8647
8648
8649
8650
8651
8652
8653
8654
8655
8656
8657
8658
8659
8660
8661
8662
8663
8664
8665
8666
8667
8668
8669
8670
8671
8672
8673
8674
8675
8676
8677
8678
8679
8680
8681
8682
8683
8684
8685
8686
8687
8688
8689
8690
8691
8692
8693
8694
8695
8696
8697
8698
8699
8700
8701
8702
8703
8704
8705
8706
8707
8708
8709
8710
8711
8712
8713
8714
8715
8716
8717
8718
8719
8720
8721
8722
8723
8724
8725
8726
8727
8728
8729
8730
8731
8732
8733
8734
8735
8736
8737
8738
8739
8740
8741
8742
8743
8744
8745
8746
8747
8748
8749
8750
8751
8752
8753
8754
8755
8756
8757
8758
8759
8760
8761
8762
8763
8764
8765
8766
8767
8768
8769
8770
8771
8772
8773
8774
8775
8776
8777
8778
8779
8780
8781
8782
8783
8784
8785
8786
8787
8788
8789
8790
8791
8792
8793
8794
8795
8796
8797
8798
8799
8800
8801
8802
8803
8804
8805
8806
8807
8808
8809
8810
8811
8812
8813
8814
8815
8816
8817
8818
8819
8820
8821
8822
8823
8824
8825
8826
8827
8828
8829
8830
8831
8832
8833
8834
8835
8836
8837
8838
8839
8840
8841
8842
8843
8844
8845
8846
8847
8848
8849
8850
8851
8852
8853
8854
8855
8856
8857
8858
8859
8860
8861
8862
8863
8864
8865
8866
8867
8868
8869
8870
8871
8872
8873
8874
8875
8876
8877
8878
8879
8880
8881
8882
8883
8884
8885
8886
8887
8888
8889
8890
8891
8892
8893
8894
8895
8896
8897
8898
8899
8900
8901
8902
8903
8904
8905
8906
8907
8908
8909
8910
8911
8912
8913
8914
8915
8916
8917
8918
8919
8920
8921
8922
8923
8924
8925
8926
8927
8928
8929
8930
8931
8932
8933
8934
8935
8936
8937
8938
8939
8940
8941
8942
8943
8944
8945
8946
8947
8948
8949
8950
8951
8952
8953
8954
8955
8956
8957
8958
8959
8960
8961
8962
8963
8964
8965
8966
8967
8968
8969
8970
8971
8972
8973
8974
8975
8976
8977
8978
8979
8980
8981
8982
8983
8984
8985
8986
8987
8988
8989
8990
8991
8992
8993
8994
8995
8996
8997
8998
8999
9000
9001
9002
9003
9004
9005
9006
9007
9008
9009
9010
9011
9012
9013
9014
9015
9016
9017
9018
9019
9020
9021
9022
9023
9024
9025
9026
9027
9028
9029
9030
9031
9032
9033
9034
9035
9036
9037
9038
9039
9040
9041
9042
9043
9044
9045
9046
9047
9048
9049
9050
9051
9052
9053
9054
9055
9056
9057
9058
9059
9060
9061
9062
9063
9064
9065
9066
9067
9068
9069
9070
9071
9072
9073
9074
9075
9076
9077
9078
9079
9080
9081
9082
9083
9084
9085
9086
9087
9088
9089
9090
9091
9092
9093
9094
9095
9096
9097
9098
9099
9100
9101
9102
9103
9104
9105
9106
9107
9108
9109
9110
9111
9112
9113
9114
9115
9116
9117
9118
9119
9120
9121
9122
9123
9124
9125
9126
9127
9128
9129
9130
9131
9132
9133
9134
9135
9136
9137
From c0bc7e807083db62824ba8b8e7449fa40886fd8d Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
From: Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org>
Date: Tue, 17 May 2016 08:28:04 +0200
Subject: [PATCH 20/21] Turn into BFQ-v8r7 for 4.9.0

CHANGELOG from v8r4 to v8r7

BFQ v8r7

BUGFIX: make BFQ compile also without hierarchical support

BFQ v8r6

BUGFIX Removed the check that, when the new queue to set in service
must be selected, the cached next_in_service entities coincide with
the entities chosen by __bfq_lookup_next_entity. This check,
issuing a warning on failure, was wrong, because the cached and the
newly chosen entity could differ in case of a CLASS_IDLE timeout.

EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT (this improvement is related to the above
BUGFIX) The cached next_in_service entities are now really used to
select the next queue to serve when the in-service queue
expires. Before this change, the cached values were used only for
extra (and in general wrong) consistency checks. This caused
additional overhead instead of reducing it.

EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT The next entity to serve, for each level of the
hierarchy, is now updated on every event that may change it, i.e., on
every activation or deactivation of any entity. This finer granularity
is not strictly needed for corectness, because it is only on queue
expirations that BFQ needs to know what are the next entities to
serve. Yet this change makes it possible to implement optimizations in
which it is necessary to know the next queue to serve before the
in-service queue expires.

SERVICE-ACCURACY IMPROVEMENT The per-device CLASS_IDLE service timeout
has been turned into a much more accurate per-group timeout.

CODE-QUALITY IMPROVEMENT The non-trivial parts touched by the above
improvements have been partially rewritten, and enriched of comments,
so as to improve their transparency and understandability.

IMPROVEMENT Ported and improved CFQ commit 41647e7a
Before this improvememtn, BFQ used the same logic for detecting
seeky queues for rotational disks and SSDs. This logic is appropriate
for the former, as it takes into account only inter-request distance,
and the latter is the dominant latency factor on a rotational device.
Yet things change with flash-based devices, where serving a large
request still yields a high throughput, even the request is far
from the previous request served. This commits extends seeky
detection to take into accoutn also this fact with flash-based
devices. In particular, this commit is an improved port of the
original commit 41647e7a for CFQ.

CODE IMPROVEMENT Remove useless parameter from bfq_del_bfqq_busy

OPTIMIZATION Optimize the update of next_in_service entity.
If the update of the next_in_service candidate entity is triggered by
the activation of an entity, then it is not necessary to perform full
lookups in the active trees to update next_in_service. In fact, it is
enough to check whether the just-activated entity has a higher
priority than next_in_service, or, even if it has the same priority as
next_in_service, is eligible and has a lower virtual finish time than
next_in_service. If this compound condition holds, then the new entity
can be set as the new next_in_service. Otherwise no change is needed.
This commit implements this optimization.

BUGFIX Fix bug causing occasional loss of weight raising.
When a bfq_queue, say bfqq, is split after a merging with another
bfq_queue, BFQ checks whether it has to restore for bfqq the
weight-raising state that bfqq had before being merged.  In
particular, the weight-raising is restored only if, according to the
weight-raising duration decided for bfqq when it started to be
weight-raised (before being merged), bfqq would not have already
finished its weight-raising period.
Yet, by mistake, such a duration was not saved when bfqq is merged. So,
if bfqq was freed and reallocated when it was split, then this duration
was wrongly set to zero on the split. As a consequence, the
weight-raising state of bfqq was wrongly not restored, which caused BFQ
to fail in guaranteeing a low latency to bfqq.
This commit fixes this bug by saving weight-raising duration when bfqq
is merged, and correctly restoring it when bfqq is split.

BUGFIX Fix wrong reset of in-service entities
In-service entities were reset with an indirect logic, which
happened to be even buggy for some cases. This commit fixes
this bug in two important steps. First, by replacing this
indirect logic with a direct logic, in which all involved
entities are immediately reset, with a bubble-up loop, when
the in-service queue is reset. Second, by restructuring the
code related to this change, so as to become not only correct
with respect to this change, but also cleaner and hopefully
clearer.

CODE IMPROVEMENT Add code to be able to redirect trace log to
console.

BUGFIX Fixed bug in optimized update of next_in_service entity.
There was a case where bfq_update_next_in_service did not update
next_in_service, even if it might need to be changed: in case of
requeueing or repositioning of the entity that happened to be
pointed exactly by next_in_service. This could result in violation
of service guarantees, because, after a change of timestamps for
such an entity, it might be the case that next_in_service had to
point to a different entity. This commit fixes this bug.

OPTIMIZATION Stop bubble-up of next_in_service update if possible.

BUGFIX Fixed a false-positive warning for uninitialized var

BFQ-v8r5

DOCUMENTATION IMPROVEMENT Added documentation of BFQ
benefits, inner workings, interface and tunables.

BUGFIX: Replaced max wrongly used for modulo numbers.

DOCUMENTATION IMPROVEMENT Improved help message in
Kconfig.iosched.

BUGFIX: Removed wrong conversion in use of bfq_fifo_expire.

CODE IMPROVEMENT Added parentheses to complex macros.

Signed-off-by: Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org>
---
 Documentation/block/00-INDEX        |    2 +
 Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt |  530 ++++++
 block/Kconfig.iosched               |   18 +-
 block/bfq-cgroup.c                  |  521 +++---
 block/bfq-iosched.c                 | 3276 ++++++++++++++++++++++-------------
 block/bfq-sched.c                   | 1290 +++++++++++---
 block/bfq.h                         |  798 +++++----
 7 files changed, 4329 insertions(+), 2106 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/block/00-INDEX b/Documentation/block/00-INDEX
index e55103ace382..8d55b4bbb5e2 100644
--- a/Documentation/block/00-INDEX
+++ b/Documentation/block/00-INDEX
@@ -1,5 +1,7 @@
 00-INDEX
 	- This file
+bfq-iosched.txt
+	- BFQ IO scheduler and its tunables
 biodoc.txt
 	- Notes on the Generic Block Layer Rewrite in Linux 2.5
 biovecs.txt
diff --git a/Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt b/Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..13b5248eba7e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,530 @@
+BFQ (Budget Fair Queueing)
+==========================
+
+BFQ is a proportional-share I/O scheduler, with some extra
+low-latency capabilities. In addition to cgroups support (blkio or io
+controllers), BFQ's main features are:
+- BFQ guarantees a high system and application responsiveness, and a
+  low latency for time-sensitive applications, such as audio or video
+  players;
+- BFQ distributes bandwidth, and not just time, among processes or
+  groups (switching back to time distribution when needed to keep
+  throughput high).
+
+On average CPUs, the current version of BFQ can handle devices
+performing at most ~30K IOPS; at most ~50 KIOPS on faster CPUs. As a
+reference, 30-50 KIOPS correspond to very high bandwidths with
+sequential I/O (e.g., 8-12 GB/s if I/O requests are 256 KB large), and
+to 120-200 MB/s with 4KB random I/O.
+
+The table of contents follow. Impatients can just jump to Section 3.
+
+CONTENTS
+
+1. When may BFQ be useful?
+ 1-1 Personal systems
+ 1-2 Server systems
+2. How does BFQ work?
+3. What are BFQ's tunable?
+4. BFQ group scheduling
+ 4-1 Service guarantees provided
+ 4-2 Interface
+
+1. When may BFQ be useful?
+==========================
+
+BFQ provides the following benefits on personal and server systems.
+
+1-1 Personal systems
+--------------------
+
+Low latency for interactive applications
+
+Regardless of the actual background workload, BFQ guarantees that, for
+interactive tasks, the storage device is virtually as responsive as if
+it was idle. For example, even if one or more of the following
+background workloads are being executed:
+- one or more large files are being read, written or copied,
+- a tree of source files is being compiled,
+- one or more virtual machines are performing I/O,
+- a software update is in progress,
+- indexing daemons are scanning filesystems and updating their
+  databases,
+starting an application or loading a file from within an application
+takes about the same time as if the storage device was idle. As a
+comparison, with CFQ, NOOP or DEADLINE, and in the same conditions,
+applications experience high latencies, or even become unresponsive
+until the background workload terminates (also on SSDs).
+
+Low latency for soft real-time applications
+
+Also soft real-time applications, such as audio and video
+players/streamers, enjoy a low latency and a low drop rate, regardless
+of the background I/O workload. As a consequence, these applications
+do not suffer from almost any glitch due to the background workload.
+
+Higher speed for code-development tasks
+
+If some additional workload happens to be executed in parallel, then
+BFQ executes the I/O-related components of typical code-development
+tasks (compilation, checkout, merge, ...) much more quickly than CFQ,
+NOOP or DEADLINE.
+
+High throughput
+
+On hard disks, BFQ achieves up to 30% higher throughput than CFQ, and
+up to 150% higher throughput than DEADLINE and NOOP, with all the
+sequential workloads considered in our tests. With random workloads,
+and with all the workloads on flash-based devices, BFQ achieves,
+instead, about the same throughput as the other schedulers.
+
+Strong fairness, bandwidth and delay guarantees
+
+BFQ distributes the device throughput, and not just the device time,
+among I/O-bound applications in proportion their weights, with any
+workload and regardless of the device parameters. From these bandwidth
+guarantees, it is possible to compute tight per-I/O-request delay
+guarantees by a simple formula. If not configured for strict service
+guarantees, BFQ switches to time-based resource sharing (only) for
+applications that would otherwise cause a throughput loss.
+
+1-2 Server systems
+------------------
+
+Most benefits for server systems follow from the same service
+properties as above. In particular, regardless of whether additional,
+possibly heavy workloads are being served, BFQ guarantees:
+
+. audio and video-streaming with zero or very low jitter and drop
+  rate;
+
+. fast retrieval of WEB pages and embedded objects;
+
+. real-time recording of data in live-dumping applications (e.g.,
+  packet logging);
+
+. responsiveness in local and remote access to a server.
+
+
+2. How does BFQ work?
+=====================
+
+BFQ is a proportional-share I/O scheduler, whose general structure,
+plus a lot of code, are borrowed from CFQ.
+
+- Each process doing I/O on a device is associated with a weight and a
+  (bfq_)queue.
+
+- BFQ grants exclusive access to the device, for a while, to one queue
+  (process) at a time, and implements this service model by
+  associating every queue with a budget, measured in number of
+  sectors.
+
+  - After a queue is granted access to the device, the budget of the
+    queue is decremented, on each request dispatch, by the size of the
+    request.
+
+  - The in-service queue is expired, i.e., its service is suspended,
+    only if one of the following events occurs: 1) the queue finishes
+    its budget, 2) the queue empties, 3) a "budget timeout" fires.
+
+    - The budget timeout prevents processes doing random I/O from
+      holding the device for too long and dramatically reducing
+      throughput.
+
+    - Actually, as in CFQ, a queue associated with a process issuing
+      sync requests may not be expired immediately when it empties. In
+      contrast, BFQ may idle the device for a short time interval,
+      giving the process the chance to go on being served if it issues
+      a new request in time. Device idling typically boosts the
+      throughput on rotational devices, if processes do synchronous
+      and sequential I/O. In addition, under BFQ, device idling is
+      also instrumental in guaranteeing the desired throughput
+      fraction to processes issuing sync requests (see the description
+      of the slice_idle tunable in this document, or [1, 2], for more
+      details).
+
+      - With respect to idling for service guarantees, if several
+	processes are competing for the device at the same time, but
+	all processes (and groups, after the following commit) have
+	the same weight, then BFQ guarantees the expected throughput
+	distribution without ever idling the device. Throughput is
+	thus as high as possible in this common scenario.
+
+  - If low-latency mode is enabled (default configuration), BFQ
+    executes some special heuristics to detect interactive and soft
+    real-time applications (e.g., video or audio players/streamers),
+    and to reduce their latency. The most important action taken to
+    achieve this goal is to give to the queues associated with these
+    applications more than their fair share of the device
+    throughput. For brevity, we call just "weight-raising" the whole
+    sets of actions taken by BFQ to privilege these queues. In
+    particular, BFQ provides a milder form of weight-raising for
+    interactive applications, and a stronger form for soft real-time
+    applications.
+
+  - BFQ automatically deactivates idling for queues born in a burst of
+    queue creations. In fact, these queues are usually associated with
+    the processes of applications and services that benefit mostly
+    from a high throughput. Examples are systemd during boot, or git
+    grep.
+
+  - As CFQ, BFQ merges queues performing interleaved I/O, i.e.,
+    performing random I/O that becomes mostly sequential if
+    merged. Differently from CFQ, BFQ achieves this goal with a more
+    reactive mechanism, called Early Queue Merge (EQM). EQM is so
+    responsive in detecting interleaved I/O (cooperating processes),
+    that it enables BFQ to achieve a high throughput, by queue
+    merging, even for queues for which CFQ needs a different
+    mechanism, preemption, to get a high throughput. As such EQM is a
+    unified mechanism to achieve a high throughput with interleaved
+    I/O.
+
+  - Queues are scheduled according to a variant of WF2Q+, named
+    B-WF2Q+, and implemented using an augmented rb-tree to preserve an
+    O(log N) overall complexity.  See [2] for more details. B-WF2Q+ is
+    also ready for hierarchical scheduling. However, for a cleaner
+    logical breakdown, the code that enables and completes
+    hierarchical support is provided in the next commit, which focuses
+    exactly on this feature.
+
+  - B-WF2Q+ guarantees a tight deviation with respect to an ideal,
+    perfectly fair, and smooth service. In particular, B-WF2Q+
+    guarantees that each queue receives a fraction of the device
+    throughput proportional to its weight, even if the throughput
+    fluctuates, and regardless of: the device parameters, the current
+    workload and the budgets assigned to the queue.
+
+  - The last, budget-independence, property (although probably
+    counterintuitive in the first place) is definitely beneficial, for
+    the following reasons:
+
+    - First, with any proportional-share scheduler, the maximum
+      deviation with respect to an ideal service is proportional to
+      the maximum budget (slice) assigned to queues. As a consequence,
+      BFQ can keep this deviation tight not only because of the
+      accurate service of B-WF2Q+, but also because BFQ *does not*
+      need to assign a larger budget to a queue to let the queue
+      receive a higher fraction of the device throughput.
+
+    - Second, BFQ is free to choose, for every process (queue), the
+      budget that best fits the needs of the process, or best
+      leverages the I/O pattern of the process. In particular, BFQ
+      updates queue budgets with a simple feedback-loop algorithm that
+      allows a high throughput to be achieved, while still providing
+      tight latency guarantees to time-sensitive applications. When
+      the in-service queue expires, this algorithm computes the next
+      budget of the queue so as to:
+
+      - Let large budgets be eventually assigned to the queues
+	associated with I/O-bound applications performing sequential
+	I/O: in fact, the longer these applications are served once
+	got access to the device, the higher the throughput is.
+
+      - Let small budgets be eventually assigned to the queues
+	associated with time-sensitive applications (which typically
+	perform sporadic and short I/O), because, the smaller the
+	budget assigned to a queue waiting for service is, the sooner
+	B-WF2Q+ will serve that queue (Subsec 3.3 in [2]).
+
+- If several processes are competing for the device at the same time,
+  but all processes and groups have the same weight, then BFQ
+  guarantees the expected throughput distribution without ever idling
+  the device. It uses preemption instead. Throughput is then much
+  higher in this common scenario.
+
+- ioprio classes are served in strict priority order, i.e.,
+  lower-priority queues are not served as long as there are
+  higher-priority queues.  Among queues in the same class, the
+  bandwidth is distributed in proportion to the weight of each
+  queue. A very thin extra bandwidth is however guaranteed to
+  the Idle class, to prevent it from starving.
+
+
+3. What are BFQ's tunable?
+==========================
+
+The tunables back_seek-max, back_seek_penalty, fifo_expire_async and
+fifo_expire_sync below are the same as in CFQ. Their description is
+just copied from that for CFQ. Some considerations in the description
+of slice_idle are copied from CFQ too.
+
+per-process ioprio and weight
+-----------------------------
+
+Unless the cgroups interface is used (see "4. BFQ group scheduling"),
+weights can be assigned to processes only indirectly, through I/O
+priorities, and according to the relation:
+weight = (IOPRIO_BE_NR - ioprio) * 10.
+
+Beware that, if low-latency is set, then BFQ automatically raises the
+weight of the queues associated with interactive and soft real-time
+applications. Unset this tunable if you need/want to control weights.
+
+slice_idle
+----------
+
+This parameter specifies how long BFQ should idle for next I/O
+request, when certain sync BFQ queues become empty. By default
+slice_idle is a non-zero value. Idling has a double purpose: boosting
+throughput and making sure that the desired throughput distribution is
+respected (see the description of how BFQ works, and, if needed, the
+papers referred there).
+
+As for throughput, idling can be very helpful on highly seeky media
+like single spindle SATA/SAS disks where we can cut down on overall
+number of seeks and see improved throughput.
+
+Setting slice_idle to 0 will remove all the idling on queues and one
+should see an overall improved throughput on faster storage devices
+like multiple SATA/SAS disks in hardware RAID configuration.
+
+So depending on storage and workload, it might be useful to set
+slice_idle=0.  In general for SATA/SAS disks and software RAID of
+SATA/SAS disks keeping slice_idle enabled should be useful. For any
+configurations where there are multiple spindles behind single LUN
+(Host based hardware RAID controller or for storage arrays), setting
+slice_idle=0 might end up in better throughput and acceptable
+latencies.
+
+Idling is however necessary to have service guarantees enforced in
+case of differentiated weights or differentiated I/O-request lengths.
+To see why, suppose that a given BFQ queue A must get several I/O
+requests served for each request served for another queue B. Idling
+ensures that, if A makes a new I/O request slightly after becoming
+empty, then no request of B is dispatched in the middle, and thus A
+does not lose the possibility to get more than one request dispatched
+before the next request of B is dispatched. Note that idling
+guarantees the desired differentiated treatment of queues only in
+terms of I/O-request dispatches. To guarantee that the actual service
+order then corresponds to the dispatch order, the strict_guarantees
+tunable must be set too.
+
+There is an important flipside for idling: apart from the above cases
+where it is beneficial also for throughput, idling can severely impact
+throughput. One important case is random workload. Because of this
+issue, BFQ tends to avoid idling as much as possible, when it is not
+beneficial also for throughput. As a consequence of this behavior, and
+of further issues described for the strict_guarantees tunable,
+short-term service guarantees may be occasionally violated. And, in
+some cases, these guarantees may be more important than guaranteeing
+maximum throughput. For example, in video playing/streaming, a very
+low drop rate may be more important than maximum throughput. In these
+cases, consider setting the strict_guarantees parameter.
+
+strict_guarantees
+-----------------
+
+If this parameter is set (default: unset), then BFQ
+
+- always performs idling when the in-service queue becomes empty;
+
+- forces the device to serve one I/O request at a time, by dispatching a
+  new request only if there is no outstanding request.
+
+In the presence of differentiated weights or I/O-request sizes, both
+the above conditions are needed to guarantee that every BFQ queue
+receives its allotted share of the bandwidth. The first condition is
+needed for the reasons explained in the description of the slice_idle
+tunable.  The second condition is needed because all modern storage
+devices reorder internally-queued requests, which may trivially break
+the service guarantees enforced by the I/O scheduler.
+
+Setting strict_guarantees may evidently affect throughput.
+
+back_seek_max
+-------------
+
+This specifies, given in Kbytes, the maximum "distance" for backward seeking.
+The distance is the amount of space from the current head location to the
+sectors that are backward in terms of distance.
+
+This parameter allows the scheduler to anticipate requests in the "backward"
+direction and consider them as being the "next" if they are within this
+distance from the current head location.
+
+back_seek_penalty
+-----------------
+
+This parameter is used to compute the cost of backward seeking. If the
+backward distance of request is just 1/back_seek_penalty from a "front"
+request, then the seeking cost of two requests is considered equivalent.
+
+So scheduler will not bias toward one or the other request (otherwise scheduler
+will bias toward front request). Default value of back_seek_penalty is 2.
+
+fifo_expire_async
+-----------------
+
+This parameter is used to set the timeout of asynchronous requests. Default
+value of this is 248ms.
+
+fifo_expire_sync
+----------------
+
+This parameter is used to set the timeout of synchronous requests. Default
+value of this is 124ms. In case to favor synchronous requests over asynchronous
+one, this value should be decreased relative to fifo_expire_async.
+
+low_latency
+-----------
+
+This parameter is used to enable/disable BFQ's low latency mode. By
+default, low latency mode is enabled. If enabled, interactive and soft
+real-time applications are privileged and experience a lower latency,
+as explained in more detail in the description of how BFQ works.
+
+DO NOT enable this mode if you need full control on bandwidth
+distribution. In fact, if it is enabled, then BFQ automatically
+increases the bandwidth share of privileged applications, as the main
+means to guarantee a lower latency to them.
+
+timeout_sync
+------------
+
+Maximum amount of device time that can be given to a task (queue) once
+it has been selected for service. On devices with costly seeks,
+increasing this time usually increases maximum throughput. On the
+opposite end, increasing this time coarsens the granularity of the
+short-term bandwidth and latency guarantees, especially if the
+following parameter is set to zero.
+
+max_budget
+----------
+
+Maximum amount of service, measured in sectors, that can be provided
+to a BFQ queue once it is set in service (of course within the limits
+of the above timeout). According to what said in the description of
+the algorithm, larger values increase the throughput in proportion to
+the percentage of sequential I/O requests issued. The price of larger
+values is that they coarsen the granularity of short-term bandwidth
+and latency guarantees.
+
+The default value is 0, which enables auto-tuning: BFQ sets max_budget
+to the maximum number of sectors that can be served during
+timeout_sync, according to the estimated peak rate.
+
+weights
+-------
+
+Read-only parameter, used to show the weights of the currently active
+BFQ queues.
+
+
+wr_ tunables
+------------
+
+BFQ exports a few parameters to control/tune the behavior of
+low-latency heuristics.
+
+wr_coeff
+
+Factor by which the weight of a weight-raised queue is multiplied. If
+the queue is deemed soft real-time, then the weight is further
+multiplied by an additional, constant factor.
+
+wr_max_time
+
+Maximum duration of a weight-raising period for an interactive task
+(ms). If set to zero (default value), then this value is computed
+automatically, as a function of the peak rate of the device. In any
+case, when the value of this parameter is read, it always reports the
+current duration, regardless of whether it has been set manually or
+computed automatically.
+
+wr_max_softrt_rate
+
+Maximum service rate below which a queue is deemed to be associated
+with a soft real-time application, and is then weight-raised
+accordingly (sectors/sec).
+
+wr_min_idle_time
+
+Minimum idle period after which interactive weight-raising may be
+reactivated for a queue (in ms).
+
+wr_rt_max_time
+
+Maximum weight-raising duration for soft real-time queues (in ms). The
+start time from which this duration is considered is automatically
+moved forward if the queue is detected to be still soft real-time
+before the current soft real-time weight-raising period finishes.
+
+wr_min_inter_arr_async
+
+Minimum period between I/O request arrivals after which weight-raising
+may be reactivated for an already busy async queue (in ms).
+
+
+4. Group scheduling with BFQ
+============================
+
+BFQ supports both cgroups-v1 and cgroups-v2 io controllers, namely
+blkio and io. In particular, BFQ supports weight-based proportional
+share. To activate cgroups support, set BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED.
+
+4-1 Service guarantees provided
+-------------------------------
+
+With BFQ, proportional share means true proportional share of the
+device bandwidth, according to group weights. For example, a group
+with weight 200 gets twice the bandwidth, and not just twice the time,
+of a group with weight 100.
+
+BFQ supports hierarchies (group trees) of any depth. Bandwidth is
+distributed among groups and processes in the expected way: for each
+group, the children of the group share the whole bandwidth of the
+group in proportion to their weights. In particular, this implies
+that, for each leaf group, every process of the group receives the
+same share of the whole group bandwidth, unless the ioprio of the
+process is modified.
+
+The resource-sharing guarantee for a group may partially or totally
+switch from bandwidth to time, if providing bandwidth guarantees to
+the group lowers the throughput too much. This switch occurs on a
+per-process basis: if a process of a leaf group causes throughput loss
+if served in such a way to receive its share of the bandwidth, then
+BFQ switches back to just time-based proportional share for that
+process.
+
+4-2 Interface
+-------------
+
+To get proportional sharing of bandwidth with BFQ for a given device,
+BFQ must of course be the active scheduler for that device.
+
+Within each group directory, the names of the files associated with
+BFQ-specific cgroup parameters and stats begin with the "bfq."
+prefix. So, with cgroups-v1 or cgroups-v2, the full prefix for
+BFQ-specific files is "blkio.bfq." or "io.bfq." For example, the group
+parameter to set the weight of a group with BFQ is blkio.bfq.weight
+or io.bfq.weight.
+
+Parameters to set
+-----------------
+
+For each group, there is only the following parameter to set.
+
+weight (namely blkio.bfq.weight or io.bfq-weight): the weight of the
+group inside its parent. Available values: 1..10000 (default 100). The
+linear mapping between ioprio and weights, described at the beginning
+of the tunable section, is still valid, but all weights higher than
+IOPRIO_BE_NR*10 are mapped to ioprio 0.
+
+Recall that, if low-latency is set, then BFQ automatically raises the
+weight of the queues associated with interactive and soft real-time
+applications. Unset this tunable if you need/want to control weights.
+
+
+[1] P. Valente, A. Avanzini, "Evolution of the BFQ Storage I/O
+    Scheduler", Proceedings of the First Workshop on Mobile System
+    Technologies (MST-2015), May 2015.
+    http://algogroup.unimore.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/mst-2015.pdf
+
+[2] P. Valente and M. Andreolini, "Improving Application
+    Responsiveness with the BFQ Disk I/O Scheduler", Proceedings of
+    the 5th Annual International Systems and Storage Conference
+    (SYSTOR '12), June 2012.
+    Slightly extended version:
+    http://algogroup.unimore.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/bfq-v1-suite-
+							results.pdf
diff --git a/block/Kconfig.iosched b/block/Kconfig.iosched
index f78cd1a9fc1b..f2cd9456be19 100644
--- a/block/Kconfig.iosched
+++ b/block/Kconfig.iosched
@@ -43,20 +43,20 @@ config IOSCHED_BFQ
 	tristate "BFQ I/O scheduler"
 	default n
 	---help---
-	  The BFQ I/O scheduler tries to distribute bandwidth among
-	  all processes according to their weights.
-	  It aims at distributing the bandwidth as desired, independently of
-	  the disk parameters and with any workload. It also tries to
-	  guarantee low latency to interactive and soft real-time
-	  applications. If compiled built-in (saying Y here), BFQ can
-	  be configured to support hierarchical scheduling.
+	The BFQ I/O scheduler distributes bandwidth among all
+	processes according to their weights, regardless of the
+	device parameters and with any workload. It also guarantees
+	a low latency to interactive and soft real-time applications.
+	Details in Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt
 
 config BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 	bool "BFQ hierarchical scheduling support"
-	depends on CGROUPS && IOSCHED_BFQ=y
+	depends on IOSCHED_BFQ && BLK_CGROUP
 	default n
 	---help---
-	  Enable hierarchical scheduling in BFQ, using the blkio controller.
+
+	Enable hierarchical scheduling in BFQ, using the blkio
+	(cgroups-v1) or io (cgroups-v2) controller.
 
 choice
 	prompt "Default I/O scheduler"
diff --git a/block/bfq-cgroup.c b/block/bfq-cgroup.c
index 03679962d5c0..bbaecd00449e 100644
--- a/block/bfq-cgroup.c
+++ b/block/bfq-cgroup.c
@@ -7,7 +7,9 @@
  * Copyright (C) 2008 Fabio Checconi <fabio@gandalf.sssup.it>
  *		      Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
  *
- * Copyright (C) 2010 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
+ * Copyright (C) 2015 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2016 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org>
  *
  * Licensed under the GPL-2 as detailed in the accompanying COPYING.BFQ
  * file.
@@ -163,8 +165,6 @@ static struct bfq_group *blkg_to_bfqg(struct blkcg_gq *blkg)
 {
 	struct blkg_policy_data *pd = blkg_to_pd(blkg, &blkcg_policy_bfq);
 
-	BUG_ON(!pd);
-
 	return pd_to_bfqg(pd);
 }
 
@@ -208,59 +208,49 @@ static void bfqg_put(struct bfq_group *bfqg)
 
 static void bfqg_stats_update_io_add(struct bfq_group *bfqg,
 				     struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
-				     int rw)
+				     int op, int op_flags)
 {
-	blkg_rwstat_add(&bfqg->stats.queued, rw, 1);
+	blkg_rwstat_add(&bfqg->stats.queued, op, op_flags, 1);
 	bfqg_stats_end_empty_time(&bfqg->stats);
 	if (!(bfqq == ((struct bfq_data *)bfqg->bfqd)->in_service_queue))
 		bfqg_stats_set_start_group_wait_time(bfqg, bfqq_group(bfqq));
 }
 
-static void bfqg_stats_update_io_remove(struct bfq_group *bfqg, int rw)
+static void bfqg_stats_update_io_remove(struct bfq_group *bfqg, int op,
+					int op_flags)
 {
-	blkg_rwstat_add(&bfqg->stats.queued, rw, -1);
+	blkg_rwstat_add(&bfqg->stats.queued, op, op_flags, -1);
 }
 
-static void bfqg_stats_update_io_merged(struct bfq_group *bfqg, int rw)
+static void bfqg_stats_update_io_merged(struct bfq_group *bfqg,  int op,
+					int op_flags)
 {
-	blkg_rwstat_add(&bfqg->stats.merged, rw, 1);
-}
-
-static void bfqg_stats_update_dispatch(struct bfq_group *bfqg,
-					      uint64_t bytes, int rw)
-{
-	blkg_stat_add(&bfqg->stats.sectors, bytes >> 9);
-	blkg_rwstat_add(&bfqg->stats.serviced, rw, 1);
-	blkg_rwstat_add(&bfqg->stats.service_bytes, rw, bytes);
+	blkg_rwstat_add(&bfqg->stats.merged, op, op_flags, 1);
 }
 
 static void bfqg_stats_update_completion(struct bfq_group *bfqg,
-			uint64_t start_time, uint64_t io_start_time, int rw)
+			uint64_t start_time, uint64_t io_start_time, int op,
+			int op_flags)
 {
 	struct bfqg_stats *stats = &bfqg->stats;
 	unsigned long long now = sched_clock();
 
 	if (time_after64(now, io_start_time))
-		blkg_rwstat_add(&stats->service_time, rw, now - io_start_time);
+		blkg_rwstat_add(&stats->service_time, op, op_flags,
+				now - io_start_time);
 	if (time_after64(io_start_time, start_time))
-		blkg_rwstat_add(&stats->wait_time, rw,
+		blkg_rwstat_add(&stats->wait_time, op, op_flags,
 				io_start_time - start_time);
 }
 
 /* @stats = 0 */
 static void bfqg_stats_reset(struct bfqg_stats *stats)
 {
-	if (!stats)
-		return;
-
 	/* queued stats shouldn't be cleared */
-	blkg_rwstat_reset(&stats->service_bytes);
-	blkg_rwstat_reset(&stats->serviced);
 	blkg_rwstat_reset(&stats->merged);
 	blkg_rwstat_reset(&stats->service_time);
 	blkg_rwstat_reset(&stats->wait_time);
 	blkg_stat_reset(&stats->time);
-	blkg_stat_reset(&stats->unaccounted_time);
 	blkg_stat_reset(&stats->avg_queue_size_sum);
 	blkg_stat_reset(&stats->avg_queue_size_samples);
 	blkg_stat_reset(&stats->dequeue);
@@ -270,19 +260,16 @@ static void bfqg_stats_reset(struct bfqg_stats *stats)
 }
 
 /* @to += @from */
-static void bfqg_stats_merge(struct bfqg_stats *to, struct bfqg_stats *from)
+static void bfqg_stats_add_aux(struct bfqg_stats *to, struct bfqg_stats *from)
 {
 	if (!to || !from)
 		return;
 
 	/* queued stats shouldn't be cleared */
-	blkg_rwstat_add_aux(&to->service_bytes, &from->service_bytes);
-	blkg_rwstat_add_aux(&to->serviced, &from->serviced);
 	blkg_rwstat_add_aux(&to->merged, &from->merged);
 	blkg_rwstat_add_aux(&to->service_time, &from->service_time);
 	blkg_rwstat_add_aux(&to->wait_time, &from->wait_time);
 	blkg_stat_add_aux(&from->time, &from->time);
-	blkg_stat_add_aux(&to->unaccounted_time, &from->unaccounted_time);
 	blkg_stat_add_aux(&to->avg_queue_size_sum, &from->avg_queue_size_sum);
 	blkg_stat_add_aux(&to->avg_queue_size_samples,
 			  &from->avg_queue_size_samples);
@@ -311,10 +298,8 @@ static void bfqg_stats_xfer_dead(struct bfq_group *bfqg)
 	if (unlikely(!parent))
 		return;
 
-	bfqg_stats_merge(&parent->dead_stats, &bfqg->stats);
-	bfqg_stats_merge(&parent->dead_stats, &bfqg->dead_stats);
+	bfqg_stats_add_aux(&parent->stats, &bfqg->stats);
 	bfqg_stats_reset(&bfqg->stats);
-	bfqg_stats_reset(&bfqg->dead_stats);
 }
 
 static void bfq_init_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity,
@@ -329,21 +314,17 @@ static void bfq_init_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity,
 		bfqq->ioprio_class = bfqq->new_ioprio_class;
 		bfqg_get(bfqg);
 	}
-	entity->parent = bfqg->my_entity;
+	entity->parent = bfqg->my_entity; /* NULL for root group */
 	entity->sched_data = &bfqg->sched_data;
 }
 
 static void bfqg_stats_exit(struct bfqg_stats *stats)
 {
-	blkg_rwstat_exit(&stats->service_bytes);
-	blkg_rwstat_exit(&stats->serviced);
 	blkg_rwstat_exit(&stats->merged);
 	blkg_rwstat_exit(&stats->service_time);
 	blkg_rwstat_exit(&stats->wait_time);
 	blkg_rwstat_exit(&stats->queued);
-	blkg_stat_exit(&stats->sectors);
 	blkg_stat_exit(&stats->time);
-	blkg_stat_exit(&stats->unaccounted_time);
 	blkg_stat_exit(&stats->avg_queue_size_sum);
 	blkg_stat_exit(&stats->avg_queue_size_samples);
 	blkg_stat_exit(&stats->dequeue);
@@ -354,15 +335,11 @@ static void bfqg_stats_exit(struct bfqg_stats *stats)
 
 static int bfqg_stats_init(struct bfqg_stats *stats, gfp_t gfp)
 {
-	if (blkg_rwstat_init(&stats->service_bytes, gfp) ||
-	    blkg_rwstat_init(&stats->serviced, gfp) ||
-	    blkg_rwstat_init(&stats->merged, gfp) ||
+	if (blkg_rwstat_init(&stats->merged, gfp) ||
 	    blkg_rwstat_init(&stats->service_time, gfp) ||
 	    blkg_rwstat_init(&stats->wait_time, gfp) ||
 	    blkg_rwstat_init(&stats->queued, gfp) ||
-	    blkg_stat_init(&stats->sectors, gfp) ||
 	    blkg_stat_init(&stats->time, gfp) ||
-	    blkg_stat_init(&stats->unaccounted_time, gfp) ||
 	    blkg_stat_init(&stats->avg_queue_size_sum, gfp) ||
 	    blkg_stat_init(&stats->avg_queue_size_samples, gfp) ||
 	    blkg_stat_init(&stats->dequeue, gfp) ||
@@ -386,11 +363,27 @@ static struct bfq_group_data *blkcg_to_bfqgd(struct blkcg *blkcg)
 	return cpd_to_bfqgd(blkcg_to_cpd(blkcg, &blkcg_policy_bfq));
 }
 
+static struct blkcg_policy_data *bfq_cpd_alloc(gfp_t gfp)
+{
+	struct bfq_group_data *bgd;
+
+	bgd = kzalloc(sizeof(*bgd), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!bgd)
+		return NULL;
+	return &bgd->pd;
+}
+
 static void bfq_cpd_init(struct blkcg_policy_data *cpd)
 {
 	struct bfq_group_data *d = cpd_to_bfqgd(cpd);
 
-	d->weight = BFQ_DEFAULT_GRP_WEIGHT;
+	d->weight = cgroup_subsys_on_dfl(io_cgrp_subsys) ?
+		CGROUP_WEIGHT_DFL : BFQ_WEIGHT_LEGACY_DFL;
+}
+
+static void bfq_cpd_free(struct blkcg_policy_data *cpd)
+{
+	kfree(cpd_to_bfqgd(cpd));
 }
 
 static struct blkg_policy_data *bfq_pd_alloc(gfp_t gfp, int node)
@@ -401,8 +394,7 @@ static struct blkg_policy_data *bfq_pd_alloc(gfp_t gfp, int node)
 	if (!bfqg)
 		return NULL;
 
-	if (bfqg_stats_init(&bfqg->stats, gfp) ||
-	    bfqg_stats_init(&bfqg->dead_stats, gfp)) {
+	if (bfqg_stats_init(&bfqg->stats, gfp)) {
 		kfree(bfqg);
 		return NULL;
 	}
@@ -410,27 +402,20 @@ static struct blkg_policy_data *bfq_pd_alloc(gfp_t gfp, int node)
 	return &bfqg->pd;
 }
 
-static void bfq_group_set_parent(struct bfq_group *bfqg,
-					struct bfq_group *parent)
-{
-	struct bfq_entity *entity;
-
-	BUG_ON(!parent);
-	BUG_ON(!bfqg);
-	BUG_ON(bfqg == parent);
-
-	entity = &bfqg->entity;
-	entity->parent = parent->my_entity;
-	entity->sched_data = &parent->sched_data;
-}
-
 static void bfq_pd_init(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
 {
-	struct blkcg_gq *blkg = pd_to_blkg(pd);
-	struct bfq_group *bfqg = blkg_to_bfqg(blkg);
-	struct bfq_data *bfqd = blkg->q->elevator->elevator_data;
-	struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqg->entity;
-	struct bfq_group_data *d = blkcg_to_bfqgd(blkg->blkcg);
+	struct blkcg_gq *blkg;
+	struct bfq_group *bfqg;
+	struct bfq_data *bfqd;
+	struct bfq_entity *entity;
+	struct bfq_group_data *d;
+
+	blkg = pd_to_blkg(pd);
+	BUG_ON(!blkg);
+	bfqg = blkg_to_bfqg(blkg);
+	bfqd = blkg->q->elevator->elevator_data;
+	entity = &bfqg->entity;
+	d = blkcg_to_bfqgd(blkg->blkcg);
 
 	entity->orig_weight = entity->weight = entity->new_weight = d->weight;
 	entity->my_sched_data = &bfqg->sched_data;
@@ -448,70 +433,53 @@ static void bfq_pd_free(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
 	struct bfq_group *bfqg = pd_to_bfqg(pd);
 
 	bfqg_stats_exit(&bfqg->stats);
-	bfqg_stats_exit(&bfqg->dead_stats);
-
 	return kfree(bfqg);
 }
 
-/* offset delta from bfqg->stats to bfqg->dead_stats */
-static const int dead_stats_off_delta = offsetof(struct bfq_group, dead_stats) -
-					offsetof(struct bfq_group, stats);
-
-/* to be used by recursive prfill, sums live and dead stats recursively */
-static u64 bfqg_stat_pd_recursive_sum(struct blkg_policy_data *pd, int off)
-{
-	u64 sum = 0;
-
-	sum += blkg_stat_recursive_sum(pd_to_blkg(pd), &blkcg_policy_bfq, off);
-	sum += blkg_stat_recursive_sum(pd_to_blkg(pd), &blkcg_policy_bfq,
-				       off + dead_stats_off_delta);
-	return sum;
-}
-
-/* to be used by recursive prfill, sums live and dead rwstats recursively */
-static struct blkg_rwstat
-bfqg_rwstat_pd_recursive_sum(struct blkg_policy_data *pd, int off)
-{
-	struct blkg_rwstat a, b;
-
-	a = blkg_rwstat_recursive_sum(pd_to_blkg(pd), &blkcg_policy_bfq, off);
-	b = blkg_rwstat_recursive_sum(pd_to_blkg(pd), &blkcg_policy_bfq,
-				      off + dead_stats_off_delta);
-	blkg_rwstat_add_aux(&a, &b);
-	return a;
-}
-
 static void bfq_pd_reset_stats(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
 {
 	struct bfq_group *bfqg = pd_to_bfqg(pd);
 
 	bfqg_stats_reset(&bfqg->stats);
-	bfqg_stats_reset(&bfqg->dead_stats);
 }
 
-static struct bfq_group *bfq_find_alloc_group(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
-					      struct blkcg *blkcg)
+static void bfq_group_set_parent(struct bfq_group *bfqg,
+					struct bfq_group *parent)
 {
-	struct request_queue *q = bfqd->queue;
-	struct bfq_group *bfqg = NULL, *parent;
-	struct bfq_entity *entity = NULL;
+	struct bfq_entity *entity;
+
+	BUG_ON(!parent);
+	BUG_ON(!bfqg);
+	BUG_ON(bfqg == parent);
+
+	entity = &bfqg->entity;
+	entity->parent = parent->my_entity;
+	entity->sched_data = &parent->sched_data;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_group *bfq_lookup_bfqg(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+					 struct blkcg *blkcg)
+{
+	struct blkcg_gq *blkg;
+
+	blkg = blkg_lookup(blkcg, bfqd->queue);
+	if (likely(blkg))
+		return blkg_to_bfqg(blkg);
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_group *bfq_find_set_group(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+					    struct blkcg *blkcg)
+{
+	struct bfq_group *bfqg, *parent;
+	struct bfq_entity *entity;
 
 	assert_spin_locked(bfqd->queue->queue_lock);
 
-	/* avoid lookup for the common case where there's no blkcg */
-	if (blkcg == &blkcg_root) {
-		bfqg = bfqd->root_group;
-	} else {
-		struct blkcg_gq *blkg;
+	bfqg = bfq_lookup_bfqg(bfqd, blkcg);
 
-		blkg = blkg_lookup_create(blkcg, q);
-		if (!IS_ERR(blkg))
-			bfqg = blkg_to_bfqg(blkg);
-		else /* fallback to root_group */
-			bfqg = bfqd->root_group;
-	}
-
-	BUG_ON(!bfqg);
+	if (unlikely(!bfqg))
+		return NULL;
 
 	/*
 	 * Update chain of bfq_groups as we might be handling a leaf group
@@ -537,11 +505,15 @@ static struct bfq_group *bfq_find_alloc_group(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 static void bfq_pos_tree_add_move(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 				  struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
 
+static void bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+			    struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+			    bool compensate,
+			    enum bfqq_expiration reason);
+
 /**
  * bfq_bfqq_move - migrate @bfqq to @bfqg.
  * @bfqd: queue descriptor.
  * @bfqq: the queue to move.
- * @entity: @bfqq's entity.
  * @bfqg: the group to move to.
  *
  * Move @bfqq to @bfqg, deactivating it from its old group and reactivating
@@ -552,26 +524,40 @@ static void bfq_pos_tree_add_move(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
  * rcu_read_lock()).
  */
 static void bfq_bfqq_move(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
-			  struct bfq_entity *entity, struct bfq_group *bfqg)
+			  struct bfq_group *bfqg)
 {
-	int busy, resume;
+	struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
 
-	busy = bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq);
-	resume = !RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list);
-
-	BUG_ON(resume && !entity->on_st);
-	BUG_ON(busy && !resume && entity->on_st &&
+	BUG_ON(!bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq) && !RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list));
+	BUG_ON(!RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list) && !entity->on_st);
+	BUG_ON(bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq) && RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list)
+	       && entity->on_st &&
 	       bfqq != bfqd->in_service_queue);
+	BUG_ON(!bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq) && bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue);
 
-	if (busy) {
-		BUG_ON(atomic_read(&bfqq->ref) < 2);
+	/* If bfqq is empty, then bfq_bfqq_expire also invokes
+	 * bfq_del_bfqq_busy, thereby removing bfqq and its entity
+	 * from data structures related to current group. Otherwise we
+	 * need to remove bfqq explicitly with bfq_deactivate_bfqq, as
+	 * we do below.
+	 */
+	if (bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue)
+		bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqd->in_service_queue,
+				false, BFQ_BFQQ_PREEMPTED);
 
-		if (!resume)
-			bfq_del_bfqq_busy(bfqd, bfqq, 0);
-		else
-			bfq_deactivate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, 0);
-	} else if (entity->on_st)
+	BUG_ON(entity->on_st && !bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq)
+	    && &bfq_entity_service_tree(entity)->idle !=
+	       entity->tree);
+
+	BUG_ON(RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list) && bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq));
+
+	if (bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq))
+		bfq_deactivate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, false, false);
+	else if (entity->on_st) {
+		BUG_ON(&bfq_entity_service_tree(entity)->idle !=
+		       entity->tree);
 		bfq_put_idle_entity(bfq_entity_service_tree(entity), entity);
+	}
 	bfqg_put(bfqq_group(bfqq));
 
 	/*
@@ -583,14 +569,17 @@ static void bfq_bfqq_move(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 	entity->sched_data = &bfqg->sched_data;
 	bfqg_get(bfqg);
 
-	if (busy) {
+	BUG_ON(RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list) && bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq));
+	if (bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq)) {
 		bfq_pos_tree_add_move(bfqd, bfqq);
-		if (resume)
-			bfq_activate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+		bfq_activate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
 	}
 
 	if (!bfqd->in_service_queue && !bfqd->rq_in_driver)
 		bfq_schedule_dispatch(bfqd);
+	BUG_ON(entity->on_st && !bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq)
+	       && &bfq_entity_service_tree(entity)->idle !=
+	       entity->tree);
 }
 
 /**
@@ -617,7 +606,11 @@ static struct bfq_group *__bfq_bic_change_cgroup(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 
 	lockdep_assert_held(bfqd->queue->queue_lock);
 
-	bfqg = bfq_find_alloc_group(bfqd, blkcg);
+	bfqg = bfq_find_set_group(bfqd, blkcg);
+
+	if (unlikely(!bfqg))
+		bfqg = bfqd->root_group;
+
 	if (async_bfqq) {
 		entity = &async_bfqq->entity;
 
@@ -625,7 +618,8 @@ static struct bfq_group *__bfq_bic_change_cgroup(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 			bic_set_bfqq(bic, NULL, 0);
 			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, async_bfqq,
 				     "bic_change_group: %p %d",
-				     async_bfqq, atomic_read(&async_bfqq->ref));
+				     async_bfqq,
+				     async_bfqq->ref);
 			bfq_put_queue(async_bfqq);
 		}
 	}
@@ -633,7 +627,7 @@ static struct bfq_group *__bfq_bic_change_cgroup(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 	if (sync_bfqq) {
 		entity = &sync_bfqq->entity;
 		if (entity->sched_data != &bfqg->sched_data)
-			bfq_bfqq_move(bfqd, sync_bfqq, entity, bfqg);
+			bfq_bfqq_move(bfqd, sync_bfqq, bfqg);
 	}
 
 	return bfqg;
@@ -642,25 +636,23 @@ static struct bfq_group *__bfq_bic_change_cgroup(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 static void bfq_bic_update_cgroup(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bio *bio)
 {
 	struct bfq_data *bfqd = bic_to_bfqd(bic);
-	struct blkcg *blkcg;
 	struct bfq_group *bfqg = NULL;
-	uint64_t id;
+	uint64_t serial_nr;
 
 	rcu_read_lock();
-	blkcg = bio_blkcg(bio);
-	id = blkcg->css.serial_nr;
-	rcu_read_unlock();
+	serial_nr = bio_blkcg(bio)->css.serial_nr;
 
 	/*
 	 * Check whether blkcg has changed.  The condition may trigger
 	 * spuriously on a newly created cic but there's no harm.
 	 */
-	if (unlikely(!bfqd) || likely(bic->blkcg_id == id))
-		return;
+	if (unlikely(!bfqd) || likely(bic->blkcg_serial_nr == serial_nr))
+		goto out;
 
-	bfqg = __bfq_bic_change_cgroup(bfqd, bic, blkcg);
-	BUG_ON(!bfqg);
-	bic->blkcg_id = id;
+	bfqg = __bfq_bic_change_cgroup(bfqd, bic, bio_blkcg(bio));
+	bic->blkcg_serial_nr = serial_nr;
+out:
+	rcu_read_unlock();
 }
 
 /**
@@ -672,7 +664,7 @@ static void bfq_flush_idle_tree(struct bfq_service_tree *st)
 	struct bfq_entity *entity = st->first_idle;
 
 	for (; entity ; entity = st->first_idle)
-		__bfq_deactivate_entity(entity, 0);
+		__bfq_deactivate_entity(entity, false);
 }
 
 /**
@@ -686,7 +678,7 @@ static void bfq_reparent_leaf_entity(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
 
 	BUG_ON(!bfqq);
-	bfq_bfqq_move(bfqd, bfqq, entity, bfqd->root_group);
+	bfq_bfqq_move(bfqd, bfqq, bfqd->root_group);
 }
 
 /**
@@ -717,11 +709,12 @@ static void bfq_reparent_active_entities(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 }
 
 /**
- * bfq_destroy_group - destroy @bfqg.
- * @bfqg: the group being destroyed.
+ * bfq_pd_offline - deactivate the entity associated with @pd,
+ *		    and reparent its children entities.
+ * @pd: descriptor of the policy going offline.
  *
- * Destroy @bfqg, making sure that it is not referenced from its parent.
- * blkio already grabs the queue_lock for us, so no need to use RCU-based magic
+ * blkio already grabs the queue_lock for us, so no need to use
+ * RCU-based magic
  */
 static void bfq_pd_offline(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
 {
@@ -776,10 +769,16 @@ static void bfq_pd_offline(struct blkg_policy_data *pd)
 	BUG_ON(bfqg->sched_data.next_in_service);
 	BUG_ON(bfqg->sched_data.in_service_entity);
 
-	__bfq_deactivate_entity(entity, 0);
+	__bfq_deactivate_entity(entity, false);
 	bfq_put_async_queues(bfqd, bfqg);
 	BUG_ON(entity->tree);
 
+	/*
+	 * @blkg is going offline and will be ignored by
+	 * blkg_[rw]stat_recursive_sum().  Transfer stats to the parent so
+	 * that they don't get lost.  If IOs complete after this point, the
+	 * stats for them will be lost.  Oh well...
+	 */
 	bfqg_stats_xfer_dead(bfqg);
 }
 
@@ -789,46 +788,35 @@ static void bfq_end_wr_async(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 
 	list_for_each_entry(blkg, &bfqd->queue->blkg_list, q_node) {
 		struct bfq_group *bfqg = blkg_to_bfqg(blkg);
+		BUG_ON(!bfqg);
 
 		bfq_end_wr_async_queues(bfqd, bfqg);
 	}
 	bfq_end_wr_async_queues(bfqd, bfqd->root_group);
 }
 
-static u64 bfqio_cgroup_weight_read(struct cgroup_subsys_state *css,
-				       struct cftype *cftype)
-{
-	struct blkcg *blkcg = css_to_blkcg(css);
-	struct bfq_group_data *bfqgd = blkcg_to_bfqgd(blkcg);
-	int ret = -EINVAL;
-
-	spin_lock_irq(&blkcg->lock);
-	ret = bfqgd->weight;
-	spin_unlock_irq(&blkcg->lock);
-
-	return ret;
-}
-
-static int bfqio_cgroup_weight_read_dfl(struct seq_file *sf, void *v)
+static int bfq_io_show_weight(struct seq_file *sf, void *v)
 {
 	struct blkcg *blkcg = css_to_blkcg(seq_css(sf));
 	struct bfq_group_data *bfqgd = blkcg_to_bfqgd(blkcg);
+	unsigned int val = 0;
 
-	spin_lock_irq(&blkcg->lock);
-	seq_printf(sf, "%u\n", bfqgd->weight);
-	spin_unlock_irq(&blkcg->lock);
+	if (bfqgd)
+		val = bfqgd->weight;
+
+	seq_printf(sf, "%u\n", val);
 
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int bfqio_cgroup_weight_write(struct cgroup_subsys_state *css,
-					struct cftype *cftype,
-					u64 val)
+static int bfq_io_set_weight_legacy(struct cgroup_subsys_state *css,
+				    struct cftype *cftype,
+				    u64 val)
 {
 	struct blkcg *blkcg = css_to_blkcg(css);
 	struct bfq_group_data *bfqgd = blkcg_to_bfqgd(blkcg);
 	struct blkcg_gq *blkg;
-	int ret = -EINVAL;
+	int ret = -ERANGE;
 
 	if (val < BFQ_MIN_WEIGHT || val > BFQ_MAX_WEIGHT)
 		return ret;
@@ -873,13 +861,18 @@ static int bfqio_cgroup_weight_write(struct cgroup_subsys_state *css,
 	return ret;
 }
 
-static ssize_t bfqio_cgroup_weight_write_dfl(struct kernfs_open_file *of,
-					     char *buf, size_t nbytes,
-					     loff_t off)
+static ssize_t bfq_io_set_weight(struct kernfs_open_file *of,
+				 char *buf, size_t nbytes,
+				 loff_t off)
 {
+	u64 weight;
 	/* First unsigned long found in the file is used */
-	return bfqio_cgroup_weight_write(of_css(of), NULL,
-					 simple_strtoull(strim(buf), NULL, 0));
+	int ret = kstrtoull(strim(buf), 0, &weight);
+
+	if (ret)
+		return ret;
+
+	return bfq_io_set_weight_legacy(of_css(of), NULL, weight);
 }
 
 static int bfqg_print_stat(struct seq_file *sf, void *v)
@@ -899,16 +892,17 @@ static int bfqg_print_rwstat(struct seq_file *sf, void *v)
 static u64 bfqg_prfill_stat_recursive(struct seq_file *sf,
 				      struct blkg_policy_data *pd, int off)
 {
-	u64 sum = bfqg_stat_pd_recursive_sum(pd, off);
-
+	u64 sum = blkg_stat_recursive_sum(pd_to_blkg(pd),
+					  &blkcg_policy_bfq, off);
 	return __blkg_prfill_u64(sf, pd, sum);
 }
 
 static u64 bfqg_prfill_rwstat_recursive(struct seq_file *sf,
 					struct blkg_policy_data *pd, int off)
 {
-	struct blkg_rwstat sum = bfqg_rwstat_pd_recursive_sum(pd, off);
-
+	struct blkg_rwstat sum = blkg_rwstat_recursive_sum(pd_to_blkg(pd),
+							   &blkcg_policy_bfq,
+							   off);
 	return __blkg_prfill_rwstat(sf, pd, &sum);
 }
 
@@ -928,6 +922,41 @@ static int bfqg_print_rwstat_recursive(struct seq_file *sf, void *v)
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static u64 bfqg_prfill_sectors(struct seq_file *sf, struct blkg_policy_data *pd,
+			       int off)
+{
+	u64 sum = blkg_rwstat_total(&pd->blkg->stat_bytes);
+
+	return __blkg_prfill_u64(sf, pd, sum >> 9);
+}
+
+static int bfqg_print_stat_sectors(struct seq_file *sf, void *v)
+{
+	blkcg_print_blkgs(sf, css_to_blkcg(seq_css(sf)),
+			  bfqg_prfill_sectors, &blkcg_policy_bfq, 0, false);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static u64 bfqg_prfill_sectors_recursive(struct seq_file *sf,
+					 struct blkg_policy_data *pd, int off)
+{
+	struct blkg_rwstat tmp = blkg_rwstat_recursive_sum(pd->blkg, NULL,
+					offsetof(struct blkcg_gq, stat_bytes));
+	u64 sum = atomic64_read(&tmp.aux_cnt[BLKG_RWSTAT_READ]) +
+		atomic64_read(&tmp.aux_cnt[BLKG_RWSTAT_WRITE]);
+
+	return __blkg_prfill_u64(sf, pd, sum >> 9);
+}
+
+static int bfqg_print_stat_sectors_recursive(struct seq_file *sf, void *v)
+{
+	blkcg_print_blkgs(sf, css_to_blkcg(seq_css(sf)),
+			  bfqg_prfill_sectors_recursive, &blkcg_policy_bfq, 0,
+			  false);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+
 static u64 bfqg_prfill_avg_queue_size(struct seq_file *sf,
 				      struct blkg_policy_data *pd, int off)
 {
@@ -964,38 +993,15 @@ bfq_create_group_hierarchy(struct bfq_data *bfqd, int node)
 	return blkg_to_bfqg(bfqd->queue->root_blkg);
 }
 
-static struct blkcg_policy_data *bfq_cpd_alloc(gfp_t gfp)
-{
-	struct bfq_group_data *bgd;
-
-	bgd = kzalloc(sizeof(*bgd), GFP_KERNEL);
-	if (!bgd)
-		return NULL;
-	return &bgd->pd;
-}
-
-static void bfq_cpd_free(struct blkcg_policy_data *cpd)
-{
-	kfree(cpd_to_bfqgd(cpd));
-}
-
-static struct cftype bfqio_files_dfl[] = {
-	{
-		.name = "weight",
-		.flags = CFTYPE_NOT_ON_ROOT,
-		.seq_show = bfqio_cgroup_weight_read_dfl,
-		.write = bfqio_cgroup_weight_write_dfl,
-	},
-	{} /* terminate */
-};
-
-static struct cftype bfqio_files[] = {
+static struct cftype bfq_blkcg_legacy_files[] = {
 	{
 		.name = "bfq.weight",
-		.read_u64 = bfqio_cgroup_weight_read,
-		.write_u64 = bfqio_cgroup_weight_write,
+		.flags = CFTYPE_NOT_ON_ROOT,
+		.seq_show = bfq_io_show_weight,
+		.write_u64 = bfq_io_set_weight_legacy,
 	},
-	/* statistics, cover only the tasks in the bfqg */
+
+	/* statistics, covers only the tasks in the bfqg */
 	{
 		.name = "bfq.time",
 		.private = offsetof(struct bfq_group, stats.time),
@@ -1003,18 +1009,17 @@ static struct cftype bfqio_files[] = {
 	},
 	{
 		.name = "bfq.sectors",
-		.private = offsetof(struct bfq_group, stats.sectors),
-		.seq_show = bfqg_print_stat,
+		.seq_show = bfqg_print_stat_sectors,
 	},
 	{
 		.name = "bfq.io_service_bytes",
-		.private = offsetof(struct bfq_group, stats.service_bytes),
-		.seq_show = bfqg_print_rwstat,
+		.private = (unsigned long)&blkcg_policy_bfq,
+		.seq_show = blkg_print_stat_bytes,
 	},
 	{
 		.name = "bfq.io_serviced",
-		.private = offsetof(struct bfq_group, stats.serviced),
-		.seq_show = bfqg_print_rwstat,
+		.private = (unsigned long)&blkcg_policy_bfq,
+		.seq_show = blkg_print_stat_ios,
 	},
 	{
 		.name = "bfq.io_service_time",
@@ -1045,18 +1050,17 @@ static struct cftype bfqio_files[] = {
 	},
 	{
 		.name = "bfq.sectors_recursive",
-		.private = offsetof(struct bfq_group, stats.sectors),
-		.seq_show = bfqg_print_stat_recursive,
+		.seq_show = bfqg_print_stat_sectors_recursive,
 	},
 	{
 		.name = "bfq.io_service_bytes_recursive",
-		.private = offsetof(struct bfq_group, stats.service_bytes),
-		.seq_show = bfqg_print_rwstat_recursive,
+		.private = (unsigned long)&blkcg_policy_bfq,
+		.seq_show = blkg_print_stat_bytes_recursive,
 	},
 	{
 		.name = "bfq.io_serviced_recursive",
-		.private = offsetof(struct bfq_group, stats.serviced),
-		.seq_show = bfqg_print_rwstat_recursive,
+		.private = (unsigned long)&blkcg_policy_bfq,
+		.seq_show = blkg_print_stat_ios_recursive,
 	},
 	{
 		.name = "bfq.io_service_time_recursive",
@@ -1102,31 +1106,39 @@ static struct cftype bfqio_files[] = {
 		.private = offsetof(struct bfq_group, stats.dequeue),
 		.seq_show = bfqg_print_stat,
 	},
-	{
-		.name = "bfq.unaccounted_time",
-		.private = offsetof(struct bfq_group, stats.unaccounted_time),
-		.seq_show = bfqg_print_stat,
-	},
 	{ }	/* terminate */
 };
 
-static struct blkcg_policy blkcg_policy_bfq = {
-	.dfl_cftypes            = bfqio_files_dfl,
-	.legacy_cftypes		= bfqio_files,
-
-	.pd_alloc_fn		= bfq_pd_alloc,
-	.pd_init_fn		= bfq_pd_init,
-	.pd_offline_fn		= bfq_pd_offline,
-	.pd_free_fn		= bfq_pd_free,
-	.pd_reset_stats_fn	= bfq_pd_reset_stats,
-
-	.cpd_alloc_fn		= bfq_cpd_alloc,
-	.cpd_init_fn		= bfq_cpd_init,
-	.cpd_bind_fn		= bfq_cpd_init,
-	.cpd_free_fn		= bfq_cpd_free,
+static struct cftype bfq_blkg_files[] = {
+	{
+		.name = "bfq.weight",
+		.flags = CFTYPE_NOT_ON_ROOT,
+		.seq_show = bfq_io_show_weight,
+		.write = bfq_io_set_weight,
+	},
+	{} /* terminate */
 };
 
-#else
+#else /* CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED */
+
+static inline void bfqg_stats_update_io_add(struct bfq_group *bfqg,
+			struct bfq_queue *bfqq, int op, int op_flags) { }
+static inline void
+bfqg_stats_update_io_remove(struct bfq_group *bfqg, int op, int op_flags) { }
+static inline void
+bfqg_stats_update_io_merged(struct bfq_group *bfqg, int op, int op_flags) { }
+static inline void bfqg_stats_update_completion(struct bfq_group *bfqg,
+			uint64_t start_time, uint64_t io_start_time, int op,
+			int op_flags) { }
+static inline void
+bfqg_stats_set_start_group_wait_time(struct bfq_group *bfqg,
+				     struct bfq_group *curr_bfqg) { }
+static inline void bfqg_stats_end_empty_time(struct bfqg_stats *stats) { }
+static inline void bfqg_stats_update_dequeue(struct bfq_group *bfqg) { }
+static inline void bfqg_stats_set_start_empty_time(struct bfq_group *bfqg) { }
+static inline void bfqg_stats_update_idle_time(struct bfq_group *bfqg) { }
+static inline void bfqg_stats_set_start_idle_time(struct bfq_group *bfqg) { }
+static inline void bfqg_stats_update_avg_queue_size(struct bfq_group *bfqg) { }
 
 static void bfq_init_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity,
 			    struct bfq_group *bfqg)
@@ -1150,29 +1162,22 @@ bfq_bic_update_cgroup(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bio *bio)
 	return bfqd->root_group;
 }
 
-static void bfq_bfqq_move(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
-			  struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
-			  struct bfq_entity *entity,
-			  struct bfq_group *bfqg)
-{
-}
-
 static void bfq_end_wr_async(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 {
 	bfq_end_wr_async_queues(bfqd, bfqd->root_group);
 }
 
-static void bfq_disconnect_groups(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
-{
-	bfq_put_async_queues(bfqd, bfqd->root_group);
-}
-
-static struct bfq_group *bfq_find_alloc_group(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
-					      struct blkcg *blkcg)
+static struct bfq_group *bfq_find_set_group(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+					    struct blkcg *blkcg)
 {
 	return bfqd->root_group;
 }
 
+static struct bfq_group *bfqq_group(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	return bfqq->bfqd->root_group;
+}
+
 static struct bfq_group *
 bfq_create_group_hierarchy(struct bfq_data *bfqd, int node)
 {
diff --git a/block/bfq-iosched.c b/block/bfq-iosched.c
index cf3e9b1800c9..2a2c130df35a 100644
--- a/block/bfq-iosched.c
+++ b/block/bfq-iosched.c
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * Budget Fair Queueing (BFQ) disk scheduler.
+ * Budget Fair Queueing (BFQ) I/O scheduler.
  *
  * Based on ideas and code from CFQ:
  * Copyright (C) 2003 Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
@@ -7,25 +7,34 @@
  * Copyright (C) 2008 Fabio Checconi <fabio@gandalf.sssup.it>
  *		      Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
  *
- * Copyright (C) 2010 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
+ * Copyright (C) 2015 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2016 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org>
  *
  * Licensed under the GPL-2 as detailed in the accompanying COPYING.BFQ
  * file.
  *
- * BFQ is a proportional-share storage-I/O scheduling algorithm based on
- * the slice-by-slice service scheme of CFQ. But BFQ assigns budgets,
- * measured in number of sectors, to processes instead of time slices. The
- * device is not granted to the in-service process for a given time slice,
- * but until it has exhausted its assigned budget. This change from the time
- * to the service domain allows BFQ to distribute the device throughput
- * among processes as desired, without any distortion due to ZBR, workload
- * fluctuations or other factors. BFQ uses an ad hoc internal scheduler,
- * called B-WF2Q+, to schedule processes according to their budgets. More
- * precisely, BFQ schedules queues associated to processes. Thanks to the
- * accurate policy of B-WF2Q+, BFQ can afford to assign high budgets to
- * I/O-bound processes issuing sequential requests (to boost the
- * throughput), and yet guarantee a low latency to interactive and soft
- * real-time applications.
+ * BFQ is a proportional-share I/O scheduler, with some extra
+ * low-latency capabilities. BFQ also supports full hierarchical
+ * scheduling through cgroups. Next paragraphs provide an introduction
+ * on BFQ inner workings. Details on BFQ benefits and usage can be
+ * found in Documentation/block/bfq-iosched.txt.
+ *
+ * BFQ is a proportional-share storage-I/O scheduling algorithm based
+ * on the slice-by-slice service scheme of CFQ. But BFQ assigns
+ * budgets, measured in number of sectors, to processes instead of
+ * time slices. The device is not granted to the in-service process
+ * for a given time slice, but until it has exhausted its assigned
+ * budget. This change from the time to the service domain enables BFQ
+ * to distribute the device throughput among processes as desired,
+ * without any distortion due to throughput fluctuations, or to device
+ * internal queueing. BFQ uses an ad hoc internal scheduler, called
+ * B-WF2Q+, to schedule processes according to their budgets. More
+ * precisely, BFQ schedules queues associated with processes. Thanks to
+ * the accurate policy of B-WF2Q+, BFQ can afford to assign high
+ * budgets to I/O-bound processes issuing sequential requests (to
+ * boost the throughput), and yet guarantee a low latency to
+ * interactive and soft real-time applications.
  *
  * BFQ is described in [1], where also a reference to the initial, more
  * theoretical paper on BFQ can be found. The interested reader can find
@@ -40,10 +49,10 @@
  * H-WF2Q+, while the augmented tree used to implement B-WF2Q+ with O(log N)
  * complexity derives from the one introduced with EEVDF in [3].
  *
- * [1] P. Valente and M. Andreolini, ``Improving Application Responsiveness
- *     with the BFQ Disk I/O Scheduler'',
- *     Proceedings of the 5th Annual International Systems and Storage
- *     Conference (SYSTOR '12), June 2012.
+ * [1] P. Valente, A. Avanzini, "Evolution of the BFQ Storage I/O
+ *   Scheduler", Proceedings of the First Workshop on Mobile System
+ *   Technologies (MST-2015), May 2015.
+ *   http://algogroup.unimore.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/mst-2015.pdf
  *
  * http://algogroup.unimo.it/people/paolo/disk_sched/bf1-v1-suite-results.pdf
  *
@@ -70,24 +79,23 @@
 #include "bfq.h"
 #include "blk.h"
 
-/* Expiration time of sync (0) and async (1) requests, in jiffies. */
-static const int bfq_fifo_expire[2] = { HZ / 4, HZ / 8 };
+/* Expiration time of sync (0) and async (1) requests, in ns. */
+static const u64 bfq_fifo_expire[2] = { NSEC_PER_SEC / 4, NSEC_PER_SEC / 8 };
 
 /* Maximum backwards seek, in KiB. */
-static const int bfq_back_max = 16 * 1024;
+static const int bfq_back_max = (16 * 1024);
 
 /* Penalty of a backwards seek, in number of sectors. */
 static const int bfq_back_penalty = 2;
 
-/* Idling period duration, in jiffies. */
-static int bfq_slice_idle = HZ / 125;
+/* Idling period duration, in ns. */
+static u32 bfq_slice_idle = (NSEC_PER_SEC / 125);
 
 /* Minimum number of assigned budgets for which stats are safe to compute. */
 static const int bfq_stats_min_budgets = 194;
 
 /* Default maximum budget values, in sectors and number of requests. */
-static const int bfq_default_max_budget = 16 * 1024;
-static const int bfq_max_budget_async_rq = 4;
+static const int bfq_default_max_budget = (16 * 1024);
 
 /*
  * Async to sync throughput distribution is controlled as follows:
@@ -97,23 +105,28 @@ static const int bfq_max_budget_async_rq = 4;
 static const int bfq_async_charge_factor = 10;
 
 /* Default timeout values, in jiffies, approximating CFQ defaults. */
-static const int bfq_timeout_sync = HZ / 8;
-static int bfq_timeout_async = HZ / 25;
+static const int bfq_timeout = (HZ / 8);
 
 struct kmem_cache *bfq_pool;
 
-/* Below this threshold (in ms), we consider thinktime immediate. */
-#define BFQ_MIN_TT		2
+/* Below this threshold (in ns), we consider thinktime immediate. */
+#define BFQ_MIN_TT		(2 * NSEC_PER_MSEC)
 
 /* hw_tag detection: parallel requests threshold and min samples needed. */
 #define BFQ_HW_QUEUE_THRESHOLD	4
 #define BFQ_HW_QUEUE_SAMPLES	32
 
-#define BFQQ_SEEK_THR	 (sector_t)(8 * 1024)
-#define BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq) ((bfqq)->seek_mean > BFQQ_SEEK_THR)
+#define BFQQ_SEEK_THR		(sector_t)(8 * 100)
+#define BFQQ_SECT_THR_NONROT	(sector_t)(2 * 32)
+#define BFQQ_CLOSE_THR		(sector_t)(8 * 1024)
+#define BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq)	(hweight32(bfqq->seek_history) > 32/8)
 
-/* Min samples used for peak rate estimation (for autotuning). */
-#define BFQ_PEAK_RATE_SAMPLES	32
+/* Min number of samples required to perform peak-rate update */
+#define BFQ_RATE_MIN_SAMPLES	32
+/* Min observation time interval required to perform a peak-rate update (ns) */
+#define BFQ_RATE_MIN_INTERVAL	(300*NSEC_PER_MSEC)
+/* Target observation time interval for a peak-rate update (ns) */
+#define BFQ_RATE_REF_INTERVAL	NSEC_PER_SEC
 
 /* Shift used for peak rate fixed precision calculations. */
 #define BFQ_RATE_SHIFT		16
@@ -141,16 +154,24 @@ struct kmem_cache *bfq_pool;
  * The device's speed class is dynamically (re)detected in
  * bfq_update_peak_rate() every time the estimated peak rate is updated.
  *
- * In the following definitions, R_slow[0]/R_fast[0] and T_slow[0]/T_fast[0]
- * are the reference values for a slow/fast rotational device, whereas
- * R_slow[1]/R_fast[1] and T_slow[1]/T_fast[1] are the reference values for
- * a slow/fast non-rotational device. Finally, device_speed_thresh are the
- * thresholds used to switch between speed classes.
+ * In the following definitions, R_slow[0]/R_fast[0] and
+ * T_slow[0]/T_fast[0] are the reference values for a slow/fast
+ * rotational device, whereas R_slow[1]/R_fast[1] and
+ * T_slow[1]/T_fast[1] are the reference values for a slow/fast
+ * non-rotational device. Finally, device_speed_thresh are the
+ * thresholds used to switch between speed classes. The reference
+ * rates are not the actual peak rates of the devices used as a
+ * reference, but slightly lower values. The reason for using these
+ * slightly lower values is that the peak-rate estimator tends to
+ * yield slightly lower values than the actual peak rate (it can yield
+ * the actual peak rate only if there is only one process doing I/O,
+ * and the process does sequential I/O).
+ *
  * Both the reference peak rates and the thresholds are measured in
  * sectors/usec, left-shifted by BFQ_RATE_SHIFT.
  */
-static int R_slow[2] = {1536, 10752};
-static int R_fast[2] = {17415, 34791};
+static int R_slow[2] = {1000, 10700};
+static int R_fast[2] = {14000, 33000};
 /*
  * To improve readability, a conversion function is used to initialize the
  * following arrays, which entails that they can be initialized only in a
@@ -183,10 +204,7 @@ static void bfq_schedule_dispatch(struct bfq_data *bfqd);
  */
 static int bfq_bio_sync(struct bio *bio)
 {
-	if (bio_data_dir(bio) == READ || (bio->bi_rw & REQ_SYNC))
-		return 1;
-
-	return 0;
+	return bio_data_dir(bio) == READ || (bio->bi_opf & REQ_SYNC);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -409,11 +427,7 @@ static bool bfq_differentiated_weights(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
  */
 static bool bfq_symmetric_scenario(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 {
-	return
-#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
-		!bfqd->active_numerous_groups &&
-#endif
-		!bfq_differentiated_weights(bfqd);
+	return !bfq_differentiated_weights(bfqd);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -533,9 +547,19 @@ static struct request *bfq_find_next_rq(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 static unsigned long bfq_serv_to_charge(struct request *rq,
 					struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 {
-	return blk_rq_sectors(rq) *
-		(1 + ((!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq)) * (bfqq->wr_coeff == 1) *
-		bfq_async_charge_factor));
+	if (bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) || bfqq->wr_coeff > 1)
+		return blk_rq_sectors(rq);
+
+	/*
+	 * If there are no weight-raised queues, then amplify service
+	 * by just the async charge factor; otherwise amplify service
+	 * by twice the async charge factor, to further reduce latency
+	 * for weight-raised queues.
+	 */
+	if (bfqq->bfqd->wr_busy_queues == 0)
+		return blk_rq_sectors(rq) * bfq_async_charge_factor;
+
+	return blk_rq_sectors(rq) * 2 * bfq_async_charge_factor;
 }
 
 /**
@@ -576,7 +600,7 @@ static void bfq_updated_next_req(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 		entity->budget = new_budget;
 		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "updated next rq: new budget %lu",
 					 new_budget);
-		bfq_activate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+		bfq_requeue_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
 	}
 }
 
@@ -590,14 +614,25 @@ static unsigned int bfq_wr_duration(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 	dur = bfqd->RT_prod;
 	do_div(dur, bfqd->peak_rate);
 
+	/*
+	 * Limit duration between 3 and 13 seconds. Tests show that
+	 * higher values than 13 seconds often yield the opposite of
+	 * the desired result, i.e., worsen responsiveness by letting
+	 * non-interactive and non-soft-real-time applications
+	 * preserve weight raising for a too long time interval.
+	 *
+	 * On the other end, lower values than 3 seconds make it
+	 * difficult for most interactive tasks to complete their jobs
+	 * before weight-raising finishes.
+	 */
+	if (dur > msecs_to_jiffies(13000))
+		dur = msecs_to_jiffies(13000);
+	else if (dur < msecs_to_jiffies(3000))
+		dur = msecs_to_jiffies(3000);
+
 	return dur;
 }
 
-static unsigned int bfq_bfqq_cooperations(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
-{
-	return bfqq->bic ? bfqq->bic->cooperations : 0;
-}
-
 static void
 bfq_bfqq_resume_state(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
 {
@@ -605,31 +640,31 @@ bfq_bfqq_resume_state(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
 		bfq_mark_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
 	else
 		bfq_clear_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+
 	if (bic->saved_IO_bound)
 		bfq_mark_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
 	else
 		bfq_clear_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
-	/* Assuming that the flag in_large_burst is already correctly set */
-	if (bic->wr_time_left && bfqq->bfqd->low_latency &&
-	    !bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq) &&
-	    bic->cooperations < bfqq->bfqd->bfq_coop_thresh) {
-		/*
-		 * Start a weight raising period with the duration given by
-		 * the raising_time_left snapshot.
-		 */
-		if (bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq))
-			bfqq->bfqd->wr_busy_queues++;
-		bfqq->wr_coeff = bfqq->bfqd->bfq_wr_coeff;
-		bfqq->wr_cur_max_time = bic->wr_time_left;
-		bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = jiffies;
-		bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
+
+	bfqq->wr_coeff = bic->saved_wr_coeff;
+	bfqq->wr_start_at_switch_to_srt = bic->saved_wr_start_at_switch_to_srt;
+	BUG_ON(time_is_after_jiffies(bfqq->wr_start_at_switch_to_srt));
+	bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = bic->saved_last_wr_start_finish;
+	bfqq->wr_cur_max_time = bic->saved_wr_cur_max_time;
+	BUG_ON(time_is_after_jiffies(bfqq->last_wr_start_finish));
+
+	if (bfqq->wr_coeff > 1 && (bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq) ||
+	    time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->last_wr_start_finish +
+				   bfqq->wr_cur_max_time))) {
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+			     "resume state: switching off wr (%lu + %lu < %lu)",
+			     bfqq->last_wr_start_finish, bfqq->wr_cur_max_time,
+			     jiffies);
+
+		bfqq->wr_coeff = 1;
 	}
-	/*
-	 * Clear wr_time_left to prevent bfq_bfqq_save_state() from
-	 * getting confused about the queue's need of a weight-raising
-	 * period.
-	 */
-	bic->wr_time_left = 0;
+	/* make sure weight will be updated, however we got here */
+	bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
 }
 
 static int bfqq_process_refs(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
@@ -639,7 +674,7 @@ static int bfqq_process_refs(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 	lockdep_assert_held(bfqq->bfqd->queue->queue_lock);
 
 	io_refs = bfqq->allocated[READ] + bfqq->allocated[WRITE];
-	process_refs = atomic_read(&bfqq->ref) - io_refs - bfqq->entity.on_st;
+	process_refs = bfqq->ref - io_refs - bfqq->entity.on_st;
 	BUG_ON(process_refs < 0);
 	return process_refs;
 }
@@ -654,6 +689,7 @@ static void bfq_reset_burst_list(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 		hlist_del_init(&item->burst_list_node);
 	hlist_add_head(&bfqq->burst_list_node, &bfqd->burst_list);
 	bfqd->burst_size = 1;
+	bfqd->burst_parent_entity = bfqq->entity.parent;
 }
 
 /* Add bfqq to the list of queues in current burst (see bfq_handle_burst) */
@@ -662,6 +698,10 @@ static void bfq_add_to_burst(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 	/* Increment burst size to take into account also bfqq */
 	bfqd->burst_size++;
 
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "add_to_burst %d", bfqd->burst_size);
+
+	BUG_ON(bfqd->burst_size > bfqd->bfq_large_burst_thresh);
+
 	if (bfqd->burst_size == bfqd->bfq_large_burst_thresh) {
 		struct bfq_queue *pos, *bfqq_item;
 		struct hlist_node *n;
@@ -671,15 +711,19 @@ static void bfq_add_to_burst(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 		 * other to consider this burst as large.
 		 */
 		bfqd->large_burst = true;
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "add_to_burst: large burst started");
 
 		/*
 		 * We can now mark all queues in the burst list as
 		 * belonging to a large burst.
 		 */
 		hlist_for_each_entry(bfqq_item, &bfqd->burst_list,
-				     burst_list_node)
+				     burst_list_node) {
 			bfq_mark_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq_item);
+			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq_item, "marked in large burst");
+		}
 		bfq_mark_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "marked in large burst");
 
 		/*
 		 * From now on, and until the current burst finishes, any
@@ -691,67 +735,79 @@ static void bfq_add_to_burst(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 		hlist_for_each_entry_safe(pos, n, &bfqd->burst_list,
 					  burst_list_node)
 			hlist_del_init(&pos->burst_list_node);
-	} else /* burst not yet large: add bfqq to the burst list */
+	} else /*
+		* Burst not yet large: add bfqq to the burst list. Do
+		* not increment the ref counter for bfqq, because bfqq
+		* is removed from the burst list before freeing bfqq
+		* in put_queue.
+		*/
 		hlist_add_head(&bfqq->burst_list_node, &bfqd->burst_list);
 }
 
 /*
- * If many queues happen to become active shortly after each other, then,
- * to help the processes associated to these queues get their job done as
- * soon as possible, it is usually better to not grant either weight-raising
- * or device idling to these queues. In this comment we describe, firstly,
- * the reasons why this fact holds, and, secondly, the next function, which
- * implements the main steps needed to properly mark these queues so that
- * they can then be treated in a different way.
+ * If many queues belonging to the same group happen to be created
+ * shortly after each other, then the processes associated with these
+ * queues have typically a common goal. In particular, bursts of queue
+ * creations are usually caused by services or applications that spawn
+ * many parallel threads/processes. Examples are systemd during boot,
+ * or git grep. To help these processes get their job done as soon as
+ * possible, it is usually better to not grant either weight-raising
+ * or device idling to their queues.
  *
- * As for the terminology, we say that a queue becomes active, i.e.,
- * switches from idle to backlogged, either when it is created (as a
- * consequence of the arrival of an I/O request), or, if already existing,
- * when a new request for the queue arrives while the queue is idle.
- * Bursts of activations, i.e., activations of different queues occurring
- * shortly after each other, are typically caused by services or applications
- * that spawn or reactivate many parallel threads/processes. Examples are
- * systemd during boot or git grep.
+ * In this comment we describe, firstly, the reasons why this fact
+ * holds, and, secondly, the next function, which implements the main
+ * steps needed to properly mark these queues so that they can then be
+ * treated in a different way.
  *
- * These services or applications benefit mostly from a high throughput:
- * the quicker the requests of the activated queues are cumulatively served,
- * the sooner the target job of these queues gets completed. As a consequence,
- * weight-raising any of these queues, which also implies idling the device
- * for it, is almost always counterproductive: in most cases it just lowers
- * throughput.
+ * The above services or applications benefit mostly from a high
+ * throughput: the quicker the requests of the activated queues are
+ * cumulatively served, the sooner the target job of these queues gets
+ * completed. As a consequence, weight-raising any of these queues,
+ * which also implies idling the device for it, is almost always
+ * counterproductive. In most cases it just lowers throughput.
  *
- * On the other hand, a burst of activations may be also caused by the start
- * of an application that does not consist in a lot of parallel I/O-bound
- * threads. In fact, with a complex application, the burst may be just a
- * consequence of the fact that several processes need to be executed to
- * start-up the application. To start an application as quickly as possible,
- * the best thing to do is to privilege the I/O related to the application
- * with respect to all other I/O. Therefore, the best strategy to start as
- * quickly as possible an application that causes a burst of activations is
- * to weight-raise all the queues activated during the burst. This is the
+ * On the other hand, a burst of queue creations may be caused also by
+ * the start of an application that does not consist of a lot of
+ * parallel I/O-bound threads. In fact, with a complex application,
+ * several short processes may need to be executed to start-up the
+ * application. In this respect, to start an application as quickly as
+ * possible, the best thing to do is in any case to privilege the I/O
+ * related to the application with respect to all other
+ * I/O. Therefore, the best strategy to start as quickly as possible
+ * an application that causes a burst of queue creations is to
+ * weight-raise all the queues created during the burst. This is the
  * exact opposite of the best strategy for the other type of bursts.
  *
- * In the end, to take the best action for each of the two cases, the two
- * types of bursts need to be distinguished. Fortunately, this seems
- * relatively easy to do, by looking at the sizes of the bursts. In
- * particular, we found a threshold such that bursts with a larger size
- * than that threshold are apparently caused only by services or commands
- * such as systemd or git grep. For brevity, hereafter we call just 'large'
- * these bursts. BFQ *does not* weight-raise queues whose activations occur
- * in a large burst. In addition, for each of these queues BFQ performs or
- * does not perform idling depending on which choice boosts the throughput
- * most. The exact choice depends on the device and request pattern at
+ * In the end, to take the best action for each of the two cases, the
+ * two types of bursts need to be distinguished. Fortunately, this
+ * seems relatively easy, by looking at the sizes of the bursts. In
+ * particular, we found a threshold such that only bursts with a
+ * larger size than that threshold are apparently caused by
+ * services or commands such as systemd or git grep. For brevity,
+ * hereafter we call just 'large' these bursts. BFQ *does not*
+ * weight-raise queues whose creation occurs in a large burst. In
+ * addition, for each of these queues BFQ performs or does not perform
+ * idling depending on which choice boosts the throughput more. The
+ * exact choice depends on the device and request pattern at
  * hand.
  *
- * Turning back to the next function, it implements all the steps needed
- * to detect the occurrence of a large burst and to properly mark all the
- * queues belonging to it (so that they can then be treated in a different
- * way). This goal is achieved by maintaining a special "burst list" that
- * holds, temporarily, the queues that belong to the burst in progress. The
- * list is then used to mark these queues as belonging to a large burst if
- * the burst does become large. The main steps are the following.
+ * Unfortunately, false positives may occur while an interactive task
+ * is starting (e.g., an application is being started). The
+ * consequence is that the queues associated with the task do not
+ * enjoy weight raising as expected. Fortunately these false positives
+ * are very rare. They typically occur if some service happens to
+ * start doing I/O exactly when the interactive task starts.
  *
- * . when the very first queue is activated, the queue is inserted into the
+ * Turning back to the next function, it implements all the steps
+ * needed to detect the occurrence of a large burst and to properly
+ * mark all the queues belonging to it (so that they can then be
+ * treated in a different way). This goal is achieved by maintaining a
+ * "burst list" that holds, temporarily, the queues that belong to the
+ * burst in progress. The list is then used to mark these queues as
+ * belonging to a large burst if the burst does become large. The main
+ * steps are the following.
+ *
+ * . when the very first queue is created, the queue is inserted into the
  *   list (as it could be the first queue in a possible burst)
  *
  * . if the current burst has not yet become large, and a queue Q that does
@@ -772,13 +828,13 @@ static void bfq_add_to_burst(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
  *
  *     . the device enters a large-burst mode
  *
- * . if a queue Q that does not belong to the burst is activated while
+ * . if a queue Q that does not belong to the burst is created while
  *   the device is in large-burst mode and shortly after the last time
  *   at which a queue either entered the burst list or was marked as
  *   belonging to the current large burst, then Q is immediately marked
  *   as belonging to a large burst.
  *
- * . if a queue Q that does not belong to the burst is activated a while
+ * . if a queue Q that does not belong to the burst is created a while
  *   later, i.e., not shortly after, than the last time at which a queue
  *   either entered the burst list or was marked as belonging to the
  *   current large burst, then the current burst is deemed as finished and:
@@ -791,52 +847,44 @@ static void bfq_add_to_burst(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
  *          in a possible new burst (then the burst list contains just Q
  *          after this step).
  */
-static void bfq_handle_burst(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
-			     bool idle_for_long_time)
+static void bfq_handle_burst(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 {
-	/*
-	 * If bfqq happened to be activated in a burst, but has been idle
-	 * for at least as long as an interactive queue, then we assume
-	 * that, in the overall I/O initiated in the burst, the I/O
-	 * associated to bfqq is finished. So bfqq does not need to be
-	 * treated as a queue belonging to a burst anymore. Accordingly,
-	 * we reset bfqq's in_large_burst flag if set, and remove bfqq
-	 * from the burst list if it's there. We do not decrement instead
-	 * burst_size, because the fact that bfqq does not need to belong
-	 * to the burst list any more does not invalidate the fact that
-	 * bfqq may have been activated during the current burst.
-	 */
-	if (idle_for_long_time) {
-		hlist_del_init(&bfqq->burst_list_node);
-		bfq_clear_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
-	}
-
 	/*
 	 * If bfqq is already in the burst list or is part of a large
-	 * burst, then there is nothing else to do.
+	 * burst, or finally has just been split, then there is
+	 * nothing else to do.
 	 */
 	if (!hlist_unhashed(&bfqq->burst_list_node) ||
-	    bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq))
+	    bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq) ||
+	    time_is_after_eq_jiffies(bfqq->split_time +
+				     msecs_to_jiffies(10)))
 		return;
 
 	/*
-	 * If bfqq's activation happens late enough, then the current
-	 * burst is finished, and related data structures must be reset.
+	 * If bfqq's creation happens late enough, or bfqq belongs to
+	 * a different group than the burst group, then the current
+	 * burst is finished, and related data structures must be
+	 * reset.
 	 *
-	 * In this respect, consider the special case where bfqq is the very
-	 * first queue being activated. In this case, last_ins_in_burst is
-	 * not yet significant when we get here. But it is easy to verify
-	 * that, whether or not the following condition is true, bfqq will
-	 * end up being inserted into the burst list. In particular the
-	 * list will happen to contain only bfqq. And this is exactly what
-	 * has to happen, as bfqq may be the first queue in a possible
+	 * In this respect, consider the special case where bfqq is
+	 * the very first queue created after BFQ is selected for this
+	 * device. In this case, last_ins_in_burst and
+	 * burst_parent_entity are not yet significant when we get
+	 * here. But it is easy to verify that, whether or not the
+	 * following condition is true, bfqq will end up being
+	 * inserted into the burst list. In particular the list will
+	 * happen to contain only bfqq. And this is exactly what has
+	 * to happen, as bfqq may be the first queue of the first
 	 * burst.
 	 */
 	if (time_is_before_jiffies(bfqd->last_ins_in_burst +
-	    bfqd->bfq_burst_interval)) {
+	    bfqd->bfq_burst_interval) ||
+	    bfqq->entity.parent != bfqd->burst_parent_entity) {
 		bfqd->large_burst = false;
 		bfq_reset_burst_list(bfqd, bfqq);
-		return;
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+			"handle_burst: late activation or different group");
+		goto end;
 	}
 
 	/*
@@ -845,8 +893,9 @@ static void bfq_handle_burst(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 	 * bfqq as belonging to this large burst immediately.
 	 */
 	if (bfqd->large_burst) {
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "handle_burst: marked in burst");
 		bfq_mark_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
-		return;
+		goto end;
 	}
 
 	/*
@@ -855,25 +904,491 @@ static void bfq_handle_burst(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 	 * queue. Then we add bfqq to the burst.
 	 */
 	bfq_add_to_burst(bfqd, bfqq);
+end:
+	/*
+	 * At this point, bfqq either has been added to the current
+	 * burst or has caused the current burst to terminate and a
+	 * possible new burst to start. In particular, in the second
+	 * case, bfqq has become the first queue in the possible new
+	 * burst.  In both cases last_ins_in_burst needs to be moved
+	 * forward.
+	 */
+	bfqd->last_ins_in_burst = jiffies;
+
+}
+
+static int bfq_bfqq_budget_left(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+
+	return entity->budget - entity->service;
+}
+
+/*
+ * If enough samples have been computed, return the current max budget
+ * stored in bfqd, which is dynamically updated according to the
+ * estimated disk peak rate; otherwise return the default max budget
+ */
+static int bfq_max_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+	if (bfqd->budgets_assigned < bfq_stats_min_budgets)
+		return bfq_default_max_budget;
+	else
+		return bfqd->bfq_max_budget;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Return min budget, which is a fraction of the current or default
+ * max budget (trying with 1/32)
+ */
+static int bfq_min_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+	if (bfqd->budgets_assigned < bfq_stats_min_budgets)
+		return bfq_default_max_budget / 32;
+	else
+		return bfqd->bfq_max_budget / 32;
+}
+
+static void bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+			    struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+			    bool compensate,
+			    enum bfqq_expiration reason);
+
+/*
+ * The next function, invoked after the input queue bfqq switches from
+ * idle to busy, updates the budget of bfqq. The function also tells
+ * whether the in-service queue should be expired, by returning
+ * true. The purpose of expiring the in-service queue is to give bfqq
+ * the chance to possibly preempt the in-service queue, and the reason
+ * for preempting the in-service queue is to achieve one of the two
+ * goals below.
+ *
+ * 1. Guarantee to bfqq its reserved bandwidth even if bfqq has
+ * expired because it has remained idle. In particular, bfqq may have
+ * expired for one of the following two reasons:
+ *
+ * - BFQ_BFQQ_NO_MORE_REQUEST bfqq did not enjoy any device idling and
+ *   did not make it to issue a new request before its last request
+ *   was served;
+ *
+ * - BFQ_BFQQ_TOO_IDLE bfqq did enjoy device idling, but did not issue
+ *   a new request before the expiration of the idling-time.
+ *
+ * Even if bfqq has expired for one of the above reasons, the process
+ * associated with the queue may be however issuing requests greedily,
+ * and thus be sensitive to the bandwidth it receives (bfqq may have
+ * remained idle for other reasons: CPU high load, bfqq not enjoying
+ * idling, I/O throttling somewhere in the path from the process to
+ * the I/O scheduler, ...). But if, after every expiration for one of
+ * the above two reasons, bfqq has to wait for the service of at least
+ * one full budget of another queue before being served again, then
+ * bfqq is likely to get a much lower bandwidth or resource time than
+ * its reserved ones. To address this issue, two countermeasures need
+ * to be taken.
+ *
+ * First, the budget and the timestamps of bfqq need to be updated in
+ * a special way on bfqq reactivation: they need to be updated as if
+ * bfqq did not remain idle and did not expire. In fact, if they are
+ * computed as if bfqq expired and remained idle until reactivation,
+ * then the process associated with bfqq is treated as if, instead of
+ * being greedy, it stopped issuing requests when bfqq remained idle,
+ * and restarts issuing requests only on this reactivation. In other
+ * words, the scheduler does not help the process recover the "service
+ * hole" between bfqq expiration and reactivation. As a consequence,
+ * the process receives a lower bandwidth than its reserved one. In
+ * contrast, to recover this hole, the budget must be updated as if
+ * bfqq was not expired at all before this reactivation, i.e., it must
+ * be set to the value of the remaining budget when bfqq was
+ * expired. Along the same line, timestamps need to be assigned the
+ * value they had the last time bfqq was selected for service, i.e.,
+ * before last expiration. Thus timestamps need to be back-shifted
+ * with respect to their normal computation (see [1] for more details
+ * on this tricky aspect).
+ *
+ * Secondly, to allow the process to recover the hole, the in-service
+ * queue must be expired too, to give bfqq the chance to preempt it
+ * immediately. In fact, if bfqq has to wait for a full budget of the
+ * in-service queue to be completed, then it may become impossible to
+ * let the process recover the hole, even if the back-shifted
+ * timestamps of bfqq are lower than those of the in-service queue. If
+ * this happens for most or all of the holes, then the process may not
+ * receive its reserved bandwidth. In this respect, it is worth noting
+ * that, being the service of outstanding requests unpreemptible, a
+ * little fraction of the holes may however be unrecoverable, thereby
+ * causing a little loss of bandwidth.
+ *
+ * The last important point is detecting whether bfqq does need this
+ * bandwidth recovery. In this respect, the next function deems the
+ * process associated with bfqq greedy, and thus allows it to recover
+ * the hole, if: 1) the process is waiting for the arrival of a new
+ * request (which implies that bfqq expired for one of the above two
+ * reasons), and 2) such a request has arrived soon. The first
+ * condition is controlled through the flag non_blocking_wait_rq,
+ * while the second through the flag arrived_in_time. If both
+ * conditions hold, then the function computes the budget in the
+ * above-described special way, and signals that the in-service queue
+ * should be expired. Timestamp back-shifting is done later in
+ * __bfq_activate_entity.
+ *
+ * 2. Reduce latency. Even if timestamps are not backshifted to let
+ * the process associated with bfqq recover a service hole, bfqq may
+ * however happen to have, after being (re)activated, a lower finish
+ * timestamp than the in-service queue.  That is, the next budget of
+ * bfqq may have to be completed before the one of the in-service
+ * queue. If this is the case, then preempting the in-service queue
+ * allows this goal to be achieved, apart from the unpreemptible,
+ * outstanding requests mentioned above.
+ *
+ * Unfortunately, regardless of which of the above two goals one wants
+ * to achieve, service trees need first to be updated to know whether
+ * the in-service queue must be preempted. To have service trees
+ * correctly updated, the in-service queue must be expired and
+ * rescheduled, and bfqq must be scheduled too. This is one of the
+ * most costly operations (in future versions, the scheduling
+ * mechanism may be re-designed in such a way to make it possible to
+ * know whether preemption is needed without needing to update service
+ * trees). In addition, queue preemptions almost always cause random
+ * I/O, and thus loss of throughput. Because of these facts, the next
+ * function adopts the following simple scheme to avoid both costly
+ * operations and too frequent preemptions: it requests the expiration
+ * of the in-service queue (unconditionally) only for queues that need
+ * to recover a hole, or that either are weight-raised or deserve to
+ * be weight-raised.
+ */
+static bool bfq_bfqq_update_budg_for_activation(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+						struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+						bool arrived_in_time,
+						bool wr_or_deserves_wr)
+{
+	struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+
+	if (bfq_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq) && arrived_in_time) {
+		/*
+		 * We do not clear the flag non_blocking_wait_rq here, as
+		 * the latter is used in bfq_activate_bfqq to signal
+		 * that timestamps need to be back-shifted (and is
+		 * cleared right after).
+		 */
+
+		/*
+		 * In next assignment we rely on that either
+		 * entity->service or entity->budget are not updated
+		 * on expiration if bfqq is empty (see
+		 * __bfq_bfqq_recalc_budget). Thus both quantities
+		 * remain unchanged after such an expiration, and the
+		 * following statement therefore assigns to
+		 * entity->budget the remaining budget on such an
+		 * expiration. For clarity, entity->service is not
+		 * updated on expiration in any case, and, in normal
+		 * operation, is reset only when bfqq is selected for
+		 * service (see bfq_get_next_queue).
+		 */
+		BUG_ON(bfqq->max_budget < 0);
+		entity->budget = min_t(unsigned long,
+				       bfq_bfqq_budget_left(bfqq),
+				       bfqq->max_budget);
+
+		BUG_ON(entity->budget < 0);
+		return true;
+	}
+
+	BUG_ON(bfqq->max_budget < 0);
+	entity->budget = max_t(unsigned long, bfqq->max_budget,
+			       bfq_serv_to_charge(bfqq->next_rq, bfqq));
+	BUG_ON(entity->budget < 0);
+
+	bfq_clear_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq);
+	return wr_or_deserves_wr;
+}
+
+static void bfq_update_bfqq_wr_on_rq_arrival(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+					     struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+					     unsigned int old_wr_coeff,
+					     bool wr_or_deserves_wr,
+					     bool interactive,
+					     bool in_burst,
+					     bool soft_rt)
+{
+	if (old_wr_coeff == 1 && wr_or_deserves_wr) {
+		/* start a weight-raising period */
+		if (interactive) {
+			bfqq->wr_coeff = bfqd->bfq_wr_coeff;
+			bfqq->wr_cur_max_time = bfq_wr_duration(bfqd);
+		} else {
+			bfqq->wr_start_at_switch_to_srt = jiffies;
+			bfqq->wr_coeff = bfqd->bfq_wr_coeff *
+				BFQ_SOFTRT_WEIGHT_FACTOR;
+			bfqq->wr_cur_max_time =
+				bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time;
+		}
+		/*
+		 * If needed, further reduce budget to make sure it is
+		 * close to bfqq's backlog, so as to reduce the
+		 * scheduling-error component due to a too large
+		 * budget. Do not care about throughput consequences,
+		 * but only about latency. Finally, do not assign a
+		 * too small budget either, to avoid increasing
+		 * latency by causing too frequent expirations.
+		 */
+		bfqq->entity.budget = min_t(unsigned long,
+					    bfqq->entity.budget,
+					    2 * bfq_min_budget(bfqd));
+
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+			     "wrais starting at %lu, rais_max_time %u",
+			     jiffies,
+			     jiffies_to_msecs(bfqq->wr_cur_max_time));
+	} else if (old_wr_coeff > 1) {
+		if (interactive) { /* update wr coeff and duration */
+			bfqq->wr_coeff = bfqd->bfq_wr_coeff;
+			bfqq->wr_cur_max_time = bfq_wr_duration(bfqd);
+		} else if (in_burst) {
+			bfqq->wr_coeff = 1;
+			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+				     "wrais ending at %lu, rais_max_time %u",
+				     jiffies,
+				     jiffies_to_msecs(bfqq->
+						      wr_cur_max_time));
+		} else if (soft_rt) {
+			/*
+			 * The application is now or still meeting the
+			 * requirements for being deemed soft rt.  We
+			 * can then correctly and safely (re)charge
+			 * the weight-raising duration for the
+			 * application with the weight-raising
+			 * duration for soft rt applications.
+			 *
+			 * In particular, doing this recharge now, i.e.,
+			 * before the weight-raising period for the
+			 * application finishes, reduces the probability
+			 * of the following negative scenario:
+			 * 1) the weight of a soft rt application is
+			 *    raised at startup (as for any newly
+			 *    created application),
+			 * 2) since the application is not interactive,
+			 *    at a certain time weight-raising is
+			 *    stopped for the application,
+			 * 3) at that time the application happens to
+			 *    still have pending requests, and hence
+			 *    is destined to not have a chance to be
+			 *    deemed soft rt before these requests are
+			 *    completed (see the comments to the
+			 *    function bfq_bfqq_softrt_next_start()
+			 *    for details on soft rt detection),
+			 * 4) these pending requests experience a high
+			 *    latency because the application is not
+			 *    weight-raised while they are pending.
+			 */
+			if (bfqq->wr_cur_max_time !=
+				bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time) {
+				bfqq->wr_start_at_switch_to_srt =
+					bfqq->last_wr_start_finish;
+                BUG_ON(time_is_after_jiffies(bfqq->last_wr_start_finish));
+
+				bfqq->wr_cur_max_time =
+					bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time;
+				bfqq->wr_coeff = bfqd->bfq_wr_coeff *
+					BFQ_SOFTRT_WEIGHT_FACTOR;
+				bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+					     "switching to soft_rt wr");
+			} else
+				bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+					"moving forward soft_rt wr duration");
+			bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = jiffies;
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+static bool bfq_bfqq_idle_for_long_time(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+					struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	return bfqq->dispatched == 0 &&
+		time_is_before_jiffies(
+			bfqq->budget_timeout +
+			bfqd->bfq_wr_min_idle_time);
+}
+
+static void bfq_bfqq_handle_idle_busy_switch(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+					     struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+					     int old_wr_coeff,
+					     struct request *rq,
+					     bool *interactive)
+{
+	bool soft_rt, in_burst,	wr_or_deserves_wr,
+		bfqq_wants_to_preempt,
+		idle_for_long_time = bfq_bfqq_idle_for_long_time(bfqd, bfqq),
+		/*
+		 * See the comments on
+		 * bfq_bfqq_update_budg_for_activation for
+		 * details on the usage of the next variable.
+		 */
+		arrived_in_time =  ktime_get_ns() <=
+			RQ_BIC(rq)->ttime.last_end_request +
+			bfqd->bfq_slice_idle * 3;
+
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+		     "bfq_add_request non-busy: "
+		     "jiffies %lu, in_time %d, idle_long %d busyw %d "
+		     "wr_coeff %u",
+		     jiffies, arrived_in_time,
+		     idle_for_long_time,
+		     bfq_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq),
+		     old_wr_coeff);
+
+	BUG_ON(bfqq->entity.budget < bfqq->entity.service);
+
+	BUG_ON(bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue);
+	bfqg_stats_update_io_add(bfqq_group(RQ_BFQQ(rq)), bfqq,
+				 req_op(rq), rq->cmd_flags);
+
+	/*
+	 * bfqq deserves to be weight-raised if:
+	 * - it is sync,
+	 * - it does not belong to a large burst,
+	 * - it has been idle for enough time or is soft real-time,
+	 * - is linked to a bfq_io_cq (it is not shared in any sense)
+	 */
+	in_burst = bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
+	soft_rt = bfqd->bfq_wr_max_softrt_rate > 0 &&
+		!in_burst &&
+		time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->soft_rt_next_start);
+	*interactive =
+		!in_burst &&
+		idle_for_long_time;
+	wr_or_deserves_wr = bfqd->low_latency &&
+		(bfqq->wr_coeff > 1 ||
+		 (bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) &&
+		  bfqq->bic && (*interactive || soft_rt)));
+
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+		     "bfq_add_request: "
+		     "in_burst %d, "
+		     "soft_rt %d (next %lu), inter %d, bic %p",
+		     bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq), soft_rt,
+		     bfqq->soft_rt_next_start,
+		     *interactive,
+		     bfqq->bic);
+
+	/*
+	 * Using the last flag, update budget and check whether bfqq
+	 * may want to preempt the in-service queue.
+	 */
+	bfqq_wants_to_preempt =
+		bfq_bfqq_update_budg_for_activation(bfqd, bfqq,
+						    arrived_in_time,
+						    wr_or_deserves_wr);
+
+	/*
+	 * If bfqq happened to be activated in a burst, but has been
+	 * idle for much more than an interactive queue, then we
+	 * assume that, in the overall I/O initiated in the burst, the
+	 * I/O associated with bfqq is finished. So bfqq does not need
+	 * to be treated as a queue belonging to a burst
+	 * anymore. Accordingly, we reset bfqq's in_large_burst flag
+	 * if set, and remove bfqq from the burst list if it's
+	 * there. We do not decrement burst_size, because the fact
+	 * that bfqq does not need to belong to the burst list any
+	 * more does not invalidate the fact that bfqq was created in
+	 * a burst.
+	 */
+	if (likely(!bfq_bfqq_just_created(bfqq)) &&
+	    idle_for_long_time &&
+	    time_is_before_jiffies(
+		    bfqq->budget_timeout +
+		    msecs_to_jiffies(10000))) {
+		hlist_del_init(&bfqq->burst_list_node);
+		bfq_clear_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
+	}
+
+	bfq_clear_bfqq_just_created(bfqq);
+
+	if (!bfq_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq)) {
+		if (arrived_in_time) {
+			bfqq->requests_within_timer++;
+			if (bfqq->requests_within_timer >=
+			    bfqd->bfq_requests_within_timer)
+				bfq_mark_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+		} else
+			bfqq->requests_within_timer = 0;
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "requests in time %d",
+			     bfqq->requests_within_timer);
+	}
+
+	if (bfqd->low_latency) {
+		if (unlikely(time_is_after_jiffies(bfqq->split_time)))
+			/* wraparound */
+			bfqq->split_time =
+				jiffies - bfqd->bfq_wr_min_idle_time - 1;
+
+		if (time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->split_time +
+					   bfqd->bfq_wr_min_idle_time)) {
+			bfq_update_bfqq_wr_on_rq_arrival(bfqd, bfqq,
+							 old_wr_coeff,
+							 wr_or_deserves_wr,
+							 *interactive,
+							 in_burst,
+							 soft_rt);
+
+			if (old_wr_coeff != bfqq->wr_coeff)
+				bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
+		}
+	}
+
+	bfqq->last_idle_bklogged = jiffies;
+	bfqq->service_from_backlogged = 0;
+	bfq_clear_bfqq_softrt_update(bfqq);
+
+	bfq_add_bfqq_busy(bfqd, bfqq);
+
+	/*
+	 * Expire in-service queue only if preemption may be needed
+	 * for guarantees. In this respect, the function
+	 * next_queue_may_preempt just checks a simple, necessary
+	 * condition, and not a sufficient condition based on
+	 * timestamps. In fact, for the latter condition to be
+	 * evaluated, timestamps would need first to be updated, and
+	 * this operation is quite costly (see the comments on the
+	 * function bfq_bfqq_update_budg_for_activation).
+	 */
+	if (bfqd->in_service_queue && bfqq_wants_to_preempt &&
+	    bfqd->in_service_queue->wr_coeff < bfqq->wr_coeff &&
+	    next_queue_may_preempt(bfqd)) {
+		struct bfq_queue *in_serv =
+			bfqd->in_service_queue;
+		BUG_ON(in_serv == bfqq);
+
+		bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqd->in_service_queue,
+				false, BFQ_BFQQ_PREEMPTED);
+		BUG_ON(in_serv->entity.budget < 0);
+	}
 }
 
 static void bfq_add_request(struct request *rq)
 {
 	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
-	struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
 	struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
 	struct request *next_rq, *prev;
-	unsigned long old_wr_coeff = bfqq->wr_coeff;
+	unsigned int old_wr_coeff = bfqq->wr_coeff;
 	bool interactive = false;
 
-	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "add_request %d", rq_is_sync(rq));
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "add_request: size %u %s",
+		     blk_rq_sectors(rq), rq_is_sync(rq) ? "S" : "A");
+
+	if (bfqq->wr_coeff > 1) /* queue is being weight-raised */
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+			"raising period dur %u/%u msec, old coeff %u, w %d(%d)",
+			jiffies_to_msecs(jiffies - bfqq->last_wr_start_finish),
+			jiffies_to_msecs(bfqq->wr_cur_max_time),
+			bfqq->wr_coeff,
+			bfqq->entity.weight, bfqq->entity.orig_weight);
+
 	bfqq->queued[rq_is_sync(rq)]++;
 	bfqd->queued++;
 
 	elv_rb_add(&bfqq->sort_list, rq);
 
 	/*
-	 * Check if this request is a better next-serve candidate.
+	 * Check if this request is a better next-to-serve candidate.
 	 */
 	prev = bfqq->next_rq;
 	next_rq = bfq_choose_req(bfqd, bfqq->next_rq, rq, bfqd->last_position);
@@ -886,160 +1401,10 @@ static void bfq_add_request(struct request *rq)
 	if (prev != bfqq->next_rq)
 		bfq_pos_tree_add_move(bfqd, bfqq);
 
-	if (!bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq)) {
-		bool soft_rt, coop_or_in_burst,
-		     idle_for_long_time = time_is_before_jiffies(
-						bfqq->budget_timeout +
-						bfqd->bfq_wr_min_idle_time);
-
-#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
-		bfqg_stats_update_io_add(bfqq_group(RQ_BFQQ(rq)), bfqq,
-					 rq->cmd_flags);
-#endif
-		if (bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq)) {
-			bool already_in_burst =
-			   !hlist_unhashed(&bfqq->burst_list_node) ||
-			   bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
-			bfq_handle_burst(bfqd, bfqq, idle_for_long_time);
-			/*
-			 * If bfqq was not already in the current burst,
-			 * then, at this point, bfqq either has been
-			 * added to the current burst or has caused the
-			 * current burst to terminate. In particular, in
-			 * the second case, bfqq has become the first
-			 * queue in a possible new burst.
-			 * In both cases last_ins_in_burst needs to be
-			 * moved forward.
-			 */
-			if (!already_in_burst)
-				bfqd->last_ins_in_burst = jiffies;
-		}
-
-		coop_or_in_burst = bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq) ||
-			bfq_bfqq_cooperations(bfqq) >= bfqd->bfq_coop_thresh;
-		soft_rt = bfqd->bfq_wr_max_softrt_rate > 0 &&
-			!coop_or_in_burst &&
-			time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->soft_rt_next_start);
-		interactive = !coop_or_in_burst && idle_for_long_time;
-		entity->budget = max_t(unsigned long, bfqq->max_budget,
-				       bfq_serv_to_charge(next_rq, bfqq));
-
-		if (!bfq_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq)) {
-			if (time_before(jiffies,
-					RQ_BIC(rq)->ttime.last_end_request +
-					bfqd->bfq_slice_idle)) {
-				bfqq->requests_within_timer++;
-				if (bfqq->requests_within_timer >=
-				    bfqd->bfq_requests_within_timer)
-					bfq_mark_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
-			} else
-				bfqq->requests_within_timer = 0;
-		}
-
-		if (!bfqd->low_latency)
-			goto add_bfqq_busy;
-
-		if (bfq_bfqq_just_split(bfqq))
-			goto set_prio_changed;
-
-		/*
-		 * If the queue:
-		 * - is not being boosted,
-		 * - has been idle for enough time,
-		 * - is not a sync queue or is linked to a bfq_io_cq (it is
-		 *   shared "for its nature" or it is not shared and its
-		 *   requests have not been redirected to a shared queue)
-		 * start a weight-raising period.
-		 */
-		if (old_wr_coeff == 1 && (interactive || soft_rt) &&
-		    (!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) || bfqq->bic)) {
-			bfqq->wr_coeff = bfqd->bfq_wr_coeff;
-			if (interactive)
-				bfqq->wr_cur_max_time = bfq_wr_duration(bfqd);
-			else
-				bfqq->wr_cur_max_time =
-					bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time;
-			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
-				     "wrais starting at %lu, rais_max_time %u",
-				     jiffies,
-				     jiffies_to_msecs(bfqq->wr_cur_max_time));
-		} else if (old_wr_coeff > 1) {
-			if (interactive)
-				bfqq->wr_cur_max_time = bfq_wr_duration(bfqd);
-			else if (coop_or_in_burst ||
-				 (bfqq->wr_cur_max_time ==
-				  bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time &&
-				  !soft_rt)) {
-				bfqq->wr_coeff = 1;
-				bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
-					"wrais ending at %lu, rais_max_time %u",
-					jiffies,
-					jiffies_to_msecs(bfqq->
-						wr_cur_max_time));
-			} else if (time_before(
-					bfqq->last_wr_start_finish +
-					bfqq->wr_cur_max_time,
-					jiffies +
-					bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time) &&
-				   soft_rt) {
-				/*
-				 *
-				 * The remaining weight-raising time is lower
-				 * than bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time, which means
-				 * that the application is enjoying weight
-				 * raising either because deemed soft-rt in
-				 * the near past, or because deemed interactive
-				 * a long ago.
-				 * In both cases, resetting now the current
-				 * remaining weight-raising time for the
-				 * application to the weight-raising duration
-				 * for soft rt applications would not cause any
-				 * latency increase for the application (as the
-				 * new duration would be higher than the
-				 * remaining time).
-				 *
-				 * In addition, the application is now meeting
-				 * the requirements for being deemed soft rt.
-				 * In the end we can correctly and safely
-				 * (re)charge the weight-raising duration for
-				 * the application with the weight-raising
-				 * duration for soft rt applications.
-				 *
-				 * In particular, doing this recharge now, i.e.,
-				 * before the weight-raising period for the
-				 * application finishes, reduces the probability
-				 * of the following negative scenario:
-				 * 1) the weight of a soft rt application is
-				 *    raised at startup (as for any newly
-				 *    created application),
-				 * 2) since the application is not interactive,
-				 *    at a certain time weight-raising is
-				 *    stopped for the application,
-				 * 3) at that time the application happens to
-				 *    still have pending requests, and hence
-				 *    is destined to not have a chance to be
-				 *    deemed soft rt before these requests are
-				 *    completed (see the comments to the
-				 *    function bfq_bfqq_softrt_next_start()
-				 *    for details on soft rt detection),
-				 * 4) these pending requests experience a high
-				 *    latency because the application is not
-				 *    weight-raised while they are pending.
-				 */
-				bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = jiffies;
-				bfqq->wr_cur_max_time =
-					bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time;
-			}
-		}
-set_prio_changed:
-		if (old_wr_coeff != bfqq->wr_coeff)
-			entity->prio_changed = 1;
-add_bfqq_busy:
-		bfqq->last_idle_bklogged = jiffies;
-		bfqq->service_from_backlogged = 0;
-		bfq_clear_bfqq_softrt_update(bfqq);
-		bfq_add_bfqq_busy(bfqd, bfqq);
-	} else {
+	if (!bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq)) /* switching to busy ... */
+		bfq_bfqq_handle_idle_busy_switch(bfqd, bfqq, old_wr_coeff,
+						 rq, &interactive);
+	else {
 		if (bfqd->low_latency && old_wr_coeff == 1 && !rq_is_sync(rq) &&
 		    time_is_before_jiffies(
 				bfqq->last_wr_start_finish +
@@ -1048,16 +1413,43 @@ static void bfq_add_request(struct request *rq)
 			bfqq->wr_cur_max_time = bfq_wr_duration(bfqd);
 
 			bfqd->wr_busy_queues++;
-			entity->prio_changed = 1;
+			bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
 			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
-			    "non-idle wrais starting at %lu, rais_max_time %u",
-			    jiffies,
-			    jiffies_to_msecs(bfqq->wr_cur_max_time));
+				     "non-idle wrais starting, "
+				     "wr_max_time %u wr_busy %d",
+				     jiffies_to_msecs(bfqq->wr_cur_max_time),
+				     bfqd->wr_busy_queues);
 		}
 		if (prev != bfqq->next_rq)
 			bfq_updated_next_req(bfqd, bfqq);
 	}
 
+	/*
+	 * Assign jiffies to last_wr_start_finish in the following
+	 * cases:
+	 *
+	 * . if bfqq is not going to be weight-raised, because, for
+	 *   non weight-raised queues, last_wr_start_finish stores the
+	 *   arrival time of the last request; as of now, this piece
+	 *   of information is used only for deciding whether to
+	 *   weight-raise async queues
+	 *
+	 * . if bfqq is not weight-raised, because, if bfqq is now
+	 *   switching to weight-raised, then last_wr_start_finish
+	 *   stores the time when weight-raising starts
+	 *
+	 * . if bfqq is interactive, because, regardless of whether
+	 *   bfqq is currently weight-raised, the weight-raising
+	 *   period must start or restart (this case is considered
+	 *   separately because it is not detected by the above
+	 *   conditions, if bfqq is already weight-raised)
+	 *
+	 * last_wr_start_finish has to be updated also if bfqq is soft
+	 * real-time, because the weight-raising period is constantly
+	 * restarted on idle-to-busy transitions for these queues, but
+	 * this is already done in bfq_bfqq_handle_idle_busy_switch if
+	 * needed.
+	 */
 	if (bfqd->low_latency &&
 		(old_wr_coeff == 1 || bfqq->wr_coeff == 1 || interactive))
 		bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = jiffies;
@@ -1081,14 +1473,24 @@ static struct request *bfq_find_rq_fmerge(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 	return NULL;
 }
 
+static sector_t get_sdist(sector_t last_pos, struct request *rq)
+{
+	sector_t sdist = 0;
+
+	if (last_pos) {
+		if (last_pos < blk_rq_pos(rq))
+			sdist = blk_rq_pos(rq) - last_pos;
+		else
+			sdist = last_pos - blk_rq_pos(rq);
+	}
+
+	return sdist;
+}
+
 static void bfq_activate_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
 {
 	struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
-
 	bfqd->rq_in_driver++;
-	bfqd->last_position = blk_rq_pos(rq) + blk_rq_sectors(rq);
-	bfq_log(bfqd, "activate_request: new bfqd->last_position %llu",
-		(unsigned long long) bfqd->last_position);
 }
 
 static void bfq_deactivate_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
@@ -1105,6 +1507,9 @@ static void bfq_remove_request(struct request *rq)
 	struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
 	const int sync = rq_is_sync(rq);
 
+	BUG_ON(bfqq->entity.service > bfqq->entity.budget &&
+	       bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue);
+
 	if (bfqq->next_rq == rq) {
 		bfqq->next_rq = bfq_find_next_rq(bfqd, bfqq, rq);
 		bfq_updated_next_req(bfqd, bfqq);
@@ -1118,8 +1523,25 @@ static void bfq_remove_request(struct request *rq)
 	elv_rb_del(&bfqq->sort_list, rq);
 
 	if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list)) {
-		if (bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq) && bfqq != bfqd->in_service_queue)
-			bfq_del_bfqq_busy(bfqd, bfqq, 1);
+		BUG_ON(bfqq->entity.budget < 0);
+
+		if (bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq) && bfqq != bfqd->in_service_queue) {
+			bfq_del_bfqq_busy(bfqd, bfqq, false);
+
+			/* bfqq emptied. In normal operation, when
+			 * bfqq is empty, bfqq->entity.service and
+			 * bfqq->entity.budget must contain,
+			 * respectively, the service received and the
+			 * budget used last time bfqq emptied. These
+			 * facts do not hold in this case, as at least
+			 * this last removal occurred while bfqq is
+			 * not in service. To avoid inconsistencies,
+			 * reset both bfqq->entity.service and
+			 * bfqq->entity.budget.
+			 */
+			bfqq->entity.budget = bfqq->entity.service = 0;
+		}
+
 		/*
 		 * Remove queue from request-position tree as it is empty.
 		 */
@@ -1133,9 +1555,8 @@ static void bfq_remove_request(struct request *rq)
 		BUG_ON(bfqq->meta_pending == 0);
 		bfqq->meta_pending--;
 	}
-#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
-	bfqg_stats_update_io_remove(bfqq_group(bfqq), rq->cmd_flags);
-#endif
+	bfqg_stats_update_io_remove(bfqq_group(bfqq), req_op(rq),
+				    rq->cmd_flags);
 }
 
 static int bfq_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request **req,
@@ -1145,7 +1566,7 @@ static int bfq_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request **req,
 	struct request *__rq;
 
 	__rq = bfq_find_rq_fmerge(bfqd, bio);
-	if (__rq && elv_rq_merge_ok(__rq, bio)) {
+	if (__rq && elv_bio_merge_ok(__rq, bio)) {
 		*req = __rq;
 		return ELEVATOR_FRONT_MERGE;
 	}
@@ -1190,7 +1611,8 @@ static void bfq_merged_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *req,
 static void bfq_bio_merged(struct request_queue *q, struct request *req,
 			   struct bio *bio)
 {
-	bfqg_stats_update_io_merged(bfqq_group(RQ_BFQQ(req)), bio->bi_rw);
+	bfqg_stats_update_io_merged(bfqq_group(RQ_BFQQ(req)), bio_op(bio),
+				    bio->bi_opf);
 }
 #endif
 
@@ -1210,7 +1632,7 @@ static void bfq_merged_requests(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 	 */
 	if (bfqq == next_bfqq &&
 	    !list_empty(&rq->queuelist) && !list_empty(&next->queuelist) &&
-	    time_before(next->fifo_time, rq->fifo_time)) {
+	    next->fifo_time < rq->fifo_time) {
 		list_del_init(&rq->queuelist);
 		list_replace_init(&next->queuelist, &rq->queuelist);
 		rq->fifo_time = next->fifo_time;
@@ -1220,21 +1642,31 @@ static void bfq_merged_requests(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 		bfqq->next_rq = rq;
 
 	bfq_remove_request(next);
-#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
-	bfqg_stats_update_io_merged(bfqq_group(bfqq), next->cmd_flags);
-#endif
+	bfqg_stats_update_io_merged(bfqq_group(bfqq), req_op(next),
+				    next->cmd_flags);
 }
 
 /* Must be called with bfqq != NULL */
 static void bfq_bfqq_end_wr(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 {
 	BUG_ON(!bfqq);
+
 	if (bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq))
 		bfqq->bfqd->wr_busy_queues--;
 	bfqq->wr_coeff = 1;
 	bfqq->wr_cur_max_time = 0;
-	/* Trigger a weight change on the next activation of the queue */
+	bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = jiffies;
+	/*
+	 * Trigger a weight change on the next invocation of
+	 * __bfq_entity_update_weight_prio.
+	 */
 	bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+		     "end_wr: wrais ending at %lu, rais_max_time %u",
+		     bfqq->last_wr_start_finish,
+		     jiffies_to_msecs(bfqq->wr_cur_max_time));
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "end_wr: wr_busy %d",
+		     bfqq->bfqd->wr_busy_queues);
 }
 
 static void bfq_end_wr_async_queues(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
@@ -1277,7 +1709,7 @@ static int bfq_rq_close_to_sector(void *io_struct, bool request,
 				  sector_t sector)
 {
 	return abs(bfq_io_struct_pos(io_struct, request) - sector) <=
-	       BFQQ_SEEK_THR;
+	       BFQQ_CLOSE_THR;
 }
 
 static struct bfq_queue *bfqq_find_close(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
@@ -1399,7 +1831,7 @@ bfq_setup_merge(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_queue *new_bfqq)
 	 * throughput.
 	 */
 	bfqq->new_bfqq = new_bfqq;
-	atomic_add(process_refs, &new_bfqq->ref);
+	new_bfqq->ref += process_refs;
 	return new_bfqq;
 }
 
@@ -1430,9 +1862,23 @@ static bool bfq_may_be_close_cooperator(struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 }
 
 /*
- * Attempt to schedule a merge of bfqq with the currently in-service queue
- * or with a close queue among the scheduled queues.
- * Return NULL if no merge was scheduled, a pointer to the shared bfq_queue
+ * If this function returns true, then bfqq cannot be merged. The idea
+ * is that true cooperation happens very early after processes start
+ * to do I/O. Usually, late cooperations are just accidental false
+ * positives. In case bfqq is weight-raised, such false positives
+ * would evidently degrade latency guarantees for bfqq.
+ */
+bool wr_from_too_long(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	return bfqq->wr_coeff > 1 &&
+		time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->last_wr_start_finish +
+				       msecs_to_jiffies(100));
+}
+
+/*
+ * Attempt to schedule a merge of bfqq with the currently in-service
+ * queue or with a close queue among the scheduled queues.  Return
+ * NULL if no merge was scheduled, a pointer to the shared bfq_queue
  * structure otherwise.
  *
  * The OOM queue is not allowed to participate to cooperation: in fact, since
@@ -1441,6 +1887,18 @@ static bool bfq_may_be_close_cooperator(struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
  * handle merging with the OOM queue would be quite complex and expensive
  * to maintain. Besides, in such a critical condition as an out of memory,
  * the benefits of queue merging may be little relevant, or even negligible.
+ *
+ * Weight-raised queues can be merged only if their weight-raising
+ * period has just started. In fact cooperating processes are usually
+ * started together. Thus, with this filter we avoid false positives
+ * that would jeopardize low-latency guarantees.
+ *
+ * WARNING: queue merging may impair fairness among non-weight raised
+ * queues, for at least two reasons: 1) the original weight of a
+ * merged queue may change during the merged state, 2) even being the
+ * weight the same, a merged queue may be bloated with many more
+ * requests than the ones produced by its originally-associated
+ * process.
  */
 static struct bfq_queue *
 bfq_setup_cooperator(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
@@ -1450,16 +1908,32 @@ bfq_setup_cooperator(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 
 	if (bfqq->new_bfqq)
 		return bfqq->new_bfqq;
-	if (!io_struct || unlikely(bfqq == &bfqd->oom_bfqq))
+
+	if (io_struct && wr_from_too_long(bfqq) &&
+	    likely(bfqq != &bfqd->oom_bfqq))
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+			     "would have looked for coop, but bfq%d wr",
+			bfqq->pid);
+
+	if (!io_struct ||
+	    wr_from_too_long(bfqq) ||
+	    unlikely(bfqq == &bfqd->oom_bfqq))
 		return NULL;
-	/* If device has only one backlogged bfq_queue, don't search. */
+
+	/* If there is only one backlogged queue, don't search. */
 	if (bfqd->busy_queues == 1)
 		return NULL;
 
 	in_service_bfqq = bfqd->in_service_queue;
 
+	if (in_service_bfqq && in_service_bfqq != bfqq &&
+	    bfqd->in_service_bic && wr_from_too_long(in_service_bfqq)
+	    && likely(in_service_bfqq == &bfqd->oom_bfqq))
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+		"would have tried merge with in-service-queue, but wr");
+
 	if (!in_service_bfqq || in_service_bfqq == bfqq ||
-	    !bfqd->in_service_bic ||
+	    !bfqd->in_service_bic || wr_from_too_long(in_service_bfqq) ||
 	    unlikely(in_service_bfqq == &bfqd->oom_bfqq))
 		goto check_scheduled;
 
@@ -1481,7 +1955,15 @@ bfq_setup_cooperator(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 
 	BUG_ON(new_bfqq && bfqq->entity.parent != new_bfqq->entity.parent);
 
-	if (new_bfqq && likely(new_bfqq != &bfqd->oom_bfqq) &&
+	if (new_bfqq && wr_from_too_long(new_bfqq) &&
+	    likely(new_bfqq != &bfqd->oom_bfqq) &&
+	    bfq_may_be_close_cooperator(bfqq, new_bfqq))
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+			     "would have merged with bfq%d, but wr",
+			     new_bfqq->pid);
+
+	if (new_bfqq && !wr_from_too_long(new_bfqq) &&
+	    likely(new_bfqq != &bfqd->oom_bfqq) &&
 	    bfq_may_be_close_cooperator(bfqq, new_bfqq))
 		return bfq_setup_merge(bfqq, new_bfqq);
 
@@ -1490,53 +1972,25 @@ bfq_setup_cooperator(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 
 static void bfq_bfqq_save_state(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 {
+	struct bfq_io_cq *bic = bfqq->bic;
+
 	/*
 	 * If !bfqq->bic, the queue is already shared or its requests
 	 * have already been redirected to a shared queue; both idle window
 	 * and weight raising state have already been saved. Do nothing.
 	 */
-	if (!bfqq->bic)
+	if (!bic)
 		return;
-	if (bfqq->bic->wr_time_left)
-		/*
-		 * This is the queue of a just-started process, and would
-		 * deserve weight raising: we set wr_time_left to the full
-		 * weight-raising duration to trigger weight-raising when
-		 * and if the queue is split and the first request of the
-		 * queue is enqueued.
-		 */
-		bfqq->bic->wr_time_left = bfq_wr_duration(bfqq->bfqd);
-	else if (bfqq->wr_coeff > 1) {
-		unsigned long wr_duration =
-			jiffies - bfqq->last_wr_start_finish;
-		/*
-		 * It may happen that a queue's weight raising period lasts
-		 * longer than its wr_cur_max_time, as weight raising is
-		 * handled only when a request is enqueued or dispatched (it
-		 * does not use any timer). If the weight raising period is
-		 * about to end, don't save it.
-		 */
-		if (bfqq->wr_cur_max_time <= wr_duration)
-			bfqq->bic->wr_time_left = 0;
-		else
-			bfqq->bic->wr_time_left =
-				bfqq->wr_cur_max_time - wr_duration;
-		/*
-		 * The bfq_queue is becoming shared or the requests of the
-		 * process owning the queue are being redirected to a shared
-		 * queue. Stop the weight raising period of the queue, as in
-		 * both cases it should not be owned by an interactive or
-		 * soft real-time application.
-		 */
-		bfq_bfqq_end_wr(bfqq);
-	} else
-		bfqq->bic->wr_time_left = 0;
-	bfqq->bic->saved_idle_window = bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
-	bfqq->bic->saved_IO_bound = bfq_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
-	bfqq->bic->saved_in_large_burst = bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
-	bfqq->bic->was_in_burst_list = !hlist_unhashed(&bfqq->burst_list_node);
-	bfqq->bic->cooperations++;
-	bfqq->bic->failed_cooperations = 0;
+
+	bic->saved_idle_window = bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
+	bic->saved_IO_bound = bfq_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+	bic->saved_in_large_burst = bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
+	bic->was_in_burst_list = !hlist_unhashed(&bfqq->burst_list_node);
+	bic->saved_wr_coeff = bfqq->wr_coeff;
+	bic->saved_wr_start_at_switch_to_srt = bfqq->wr_start_at_switch_to_srt;
+	bic->saved_last_wr_start_finish = bfqq->last_wr_start_finish;
+	bic->saved_wr_cur_max_time = bfqq->wr_cur_max_time;
+	BUG_ON(time_is_after_jiffies(bfqq->last_wr_start_finish));
 }
 
 static void bfq_get_bic_reference(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
@@ -1561,6 +2015,40 @@ bfq_merge_bfqqs(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_io_cq *bic,
 	if (bfq_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq))
 		bfq_mark_bfqq_IO_bound(new_bfqq);
 	bfq_clear_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
+
+	/*
+	 * If bfqq is weight-raised, then let new_bfqq inherit
+	 * weight-raising. To reduce false positives, neglect the case
+	 * where bfqq has just been created, but has not yet made it
+	 * to be weight-raised (which may happen because EQM may merge
+	 * bfqq even before bfq_add_request is executed for the first
+	 * time for bfqq). Handling this case would however be very
+	 * easy, thanks to the flag just_created.
+	 */
+	if (new_bfqq->wr_coeff == 1 && bfqq->wr_coeff > 1) {
+		new_bfqq->wr_coeff = bfqq->wr_coeff;
+		new_bfqq->wr_cur_max_time = bfqq->wr_cur_max_time;
+		new_bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = bfqq->last_wr_start_finish;
+		new_bfqq->wr_start_at_switch_to_srt = bfqq->wr_start_at_switch_to_srt;
+		if (bfq_bfqq_busy(new_bfqq))
+			bfqd->wr_busy_queues++;
+		new_bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, new_bfqq,
+			     "wr start after merge with %d, rais_max_time %u",
+			     bfqq->pid,
+			     jiffies_to_msecs(bfqq->wr_cur_max_time));
+	}
+
+	if (bfqq->wr_coeff > 1) { /* bfqq has given its wr to new_bfqq */
+		bfqq->wr_coeff = 1;
+		bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
+		if (bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq))
+			bfqd->wr_busy_queues--;
+	}
+
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, new_bfqq, "merge_bfqqs: wr_busy %d",
+		     bfqd->wr_busy_queues);
+
 	/*
 	 * Grab a reference to the bic, to prevent it from being destroyed
 	 * before being possibly touched by a bfq_split_bfqq().
@@ -1587,20 +2075,8 @@ bfq_merge_bfqqs(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_io_cq *bic,
 	bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
 }
 
-static void bfq_bfqq_increase_failed_cooperations(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
-{
-	struct bfq_io_cq *bic = bfqq->bic;
-	struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
-
-	if (bic && bfq_bfqq_cooperations(bfqq) >= bfqd->bfq_coop_thresh) {
-		bic->failed_cooperations++;
-		if (bic->failed_cooperations >= bfqd->bfq_failed_cooperations)
-			bic->cooperations = 0;
-	}
-}
-
-static int bfq_allow_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
-			   struct bio *bio)
+static int bfq_allow_bio_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
+			       struct bio *bio)
 {
 	struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
 	struct bfq_io_cq *bic;
@@ -1610,7 +2086,7 @@ static int bfq_allow_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 	 * Disallow merge of a sync bio into an async request.
 	 */
 	if (bfq_bio_sync(bio) && !rq_is_sync(rq))
-		return 0;
+		return false;
 
 	/*
 	 * Lookup the bfqq that this bio will be queued with. Allow
@@ -1619,7 +2095,7 @@ static int bfq_allow_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 	 */
 	bic = bfq_bic_lookup(bfqd, current->io_context);
 	if (!bic)
-		return 0;
+		return false;
 
 	bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, bfq_bio_sync(bio));
 	/*
@@ -1636,30 +2112,111 @@ static int bfq_allow_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 			 * to decide whether bio and rq can be merged.
 			 */
 			bfqq = new_bfqq;
-		} else
-			bfq_bfqq_increase_failed_cooperations(bfqq);
+		}
 	}
 
 	return bfqq == RQ_BFQQ(rq);
 }
 
+static int bfq_allow_rq_merge(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
+			      struct request *next)
+{
+	return RQ_BFQQ(rq) == RQ_BFQQ(next);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Set the maximum time for the in-service queue to consume its
+ * budget. This prevents seeky processes from lowering the throughput.
+ * In practice, a time-slice service scheme is used with seeky
+ * processes.
+ */
+static void bfq_set_budget_timeout(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
+				   struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	unsigned int timeout_coeff;
+
+	if (bfqq->wr_cur_max_time == bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time)
+		timeout_coeff = 1;
+	else
+		timeout_coeff = bfqq->entity.weight / bfqq->entity.orig_weight;
+
+	bfqd->last_budget_start = ktime_get();
+
+	bfqq->budget_timeout = jiffies +
+		bfqd->bfq_timeout * timeout_coeff;
+
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "set budget_timeout %u",
+		jiffies_to_msecs(bfqd->bfq_timeout * timeout_coeff));
+}
+
 static void __bfq_set_in_service_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 				       struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 {
 	if (bfqq) {
-#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 		bfqg_stats_update_avg_queue_size(bfqq_group(bfqq));
-#endif
 		bfq_mark_bfqq_must_alloc(bfqq);
-		bfq_mark_bfqq_budget_new(bfqq);
 		bfq_clear_bfqq_fifo_expire(bfqq);
 
 		bfqd->budgets_assigned = (bfqd->budgets_assigned*7 + 256) / 8;
 
+		BUG_ON(bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue);
+		BUG_ON(RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list));
+
+		if (time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->last_wr_start_finish) &&
+		    bfqq->wr_coeff > 1 &&
+		    bfqq->wr_cur_max_time == bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time &&
+		    time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->budget_timeout)) {
+			/*
+			 * For soft real-time queues, move the start
+			 * of the weight-raising period forward by the
+			 * time the queue has not received any
+			 * service. Otherwise, a relatively long
+			 * service delay is likely to cause the
+			 * weight-raising period of the queue to end,
+			 * because of the short duration of the
+			 * weight-raising period of a soft real-time
+			 * queue.  It is worth noting that this move
+			 * is not so dangerous for the other queues,
+			 * because soft real-time queues are not
+			 * greedy.
+			 *
+			 * To not add a further variable, we use the
+			 * overloaded field budget_timeout to
+			 * determine for how long the queue has not
+			 * received service, i.e., how much time has
+			 * elapsed since the queue expired. However,
+			 * this is a little imprecise, because
+			 * budget_timeout is set to jiffies if bfqq
+			 * not only expires, but also remains with no
+			 * request.
+			 */
+			if (time_after(bfqq->budget_timeout,
+				       bfqq->last_wr_start_finish))
+				bfqq->last_wr_start_finish +=
+					jiffies - bfqq->budget_timeout;
+			else
+				bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = jiffies;
+
+			if (time_is_after_jiffies(bfqq->last_wr_start_finish)) {
+			       pr_crit(
+			       "BFQ WARNING:last %lu budget %lu jiffies %lu",
+			       bfqq->last_wr_start_finish,
+			       bfqq->budget_timeout,
+			       jiffies);
+			       pr_crit("diff %lu", jiffies -
+				       max_t(unsigned long,
+					     bfqq->last_wr_start_finish,
+					     bfqq->budget_timeout));
+			       bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = jiffies;
+			}
+		}
+
+		bfq_set_budget_timeout(bfqd, bfqq);
 		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
 			     "set_in_service_queue, cur-budget = %d",
 			     bfqq->entity.budget);
-	}
+	} else
+		bfq_log(bfqd, "set_in_service_queue: NULL");
 
 	bfqd->in_service_queue = bfqq;
 }
@@ -1675,36 +2232,11 @@ static struct bfq_queue *bfq_set_in_service_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 	return bfqq;
 }
 
-/*
- * If enough samples have been computed, return the current max budget
- * stored in bfqd, which is dynamically updated according to the
- * estimated disk peak rate; otherwise return the default max budget
- */
-static int bfq_max_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
-{
-	if (bfqd->budgets_assigned < bfq_stats_min_budgets)
-		return bfq_default_max_budget;
-	else
-		return bfqd->bfq_max_budget;
-}
-
-/*
- * Return min budget, which is a fraction of the current or default
- * max budget (trying with 1/32)
- */
-static int bfq_min_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
-{
-	if (bfqd->budgets_assigned < bfq_stats_min_budgets)
-		return bfq_default_max_budget / 32;
-	else
-		return bfqd->bfq_max_budget / 32;
-}
-
 static void bfq_arm_slice_timer(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 {
 	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfqd->in_service_queue;
 	struct bfq_io_cq *bic;
-	unsigned long sl;
+	u32 sl;
 
 	BUG_ON(!RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list));
 
@@ -1728,59 +2260,343 @@ static void bfq_arm_slice_timer(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 	sl = bfqd->bfq_slice_idle;
 	/*
 	 * Unless the queue is being weight-raised or the scenario is
-	 * asymmetric, grant only minimum idle time if the queue either
-	 * has been seeky for long enough or has already proved to be
-	 * constantly seeky.
+	 * asymmetric, grant only minimum idle time if the queue
+	 * is seeky. A long idling is preserved for a weight-raised
+	 * queue, or, more in general, in an asymemtric scenario,
+	 * because a long idling is needed for guaranteeing to a queue
+	 * its reserved share of the throughput (in particular, it is
+	 * needed if the queue has a higher weight than some other
+	 * queue).
 	 */
-	if (bfq_sample_valid(bfqq->seek_samples) &&
-	    ((BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq) && bfqq->entity.service >
-				  bfq_max_budget(bfqq->bfqd) / 8) ||
-	      bfq_bfqq_constantly_seeky(bfqq)) && bfqq->wr_coeff == 1 &&
+	if (BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq) && bfqq->wr_coeff == 1 &&
 	    bfq_symmetric_scenario(bfqd))
-		sl = min(sl, msecs_to_jiffies(BFQ_MIN_TT));
-	else if (bfqq->wr_coeff > 1)
-		sl = sl * 3;
+		sl = min_t(u32, sl, BFQ_MIN_TT);
+
 	bfqd->last_idling_start = ktime_get();
-	mod_timer(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer, jiffies + sl);
-#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+	hrtimer_start(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer, ns_to_ktime(sl),
+		      HRTIMER_MODE_REL);
 	bfqg_stats_set_start_idle_time(bfqq_group(bfqq));
-#endif
-	bfq_log(bfqd, "arm idle: %u/%u ms",
-		jiffies_to_msecs(sl), jiffies_to_msecs(bfqd->bfq_slice_idle));
+	bfq_log(bfqd, "arm idle: %ld/%ld ms",
+		sl / NSEC_PER_MSEC, bfqd->bfq_slice_idle / NSEC_PER_MSEC);
 }
 
 /*
- * Set the maximum time for the in-service queue to consume its
- * budget. This prevents seeky processes from lowering the disk
- * throughput (always guaranteed with a time slice scheme as in CFQ).
+ * In autotuning mode, max_budget is dynamically recomputed as the
+ * amount of sectors transferred in timeout at the estimated peak
+ * rate. This enables BFQ to utilize a full timeslice with a full
+ * budget, even if the in-service queue is served at peak rate. And
+ * this maximises throughput with sequential workloads.
  */
-static void bfq_set_budget_timeout(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+static unsigned long bfq_calc_max_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 {
-	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfqd->in_service_queue;
-	unsigned int timeout_coeff;
+	return (u64)bfqd->peak_rate * USEC_PER_MSEC *
+		jiffies_to_msecs(bfqd->bfq_timeout)>>BFQ_RATE_SHIFT;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Update parameters related to throughput and responsiveness, as a
+ * function of the estimated peak rate. See comments on
+ * bfq_calc_max_budget(), and on T_slow and T_fast arrays.
+ */
+void update_thr_responsiveness_params(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+	int dev_type = blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue);
+
+	if (bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget == 0) {
+		bfqd->bfq_max_budget =
+			bfq_calc_max_budget(bfqd);
+		BUG_ON(bfqd->bfq_max_budget < 0);
+		bfq_log(bfqd, "new max_budget = %d",
+			bfqd->bfq_max_budget);
+	}
+
+	if (bfqd->device_speed == BFQ_BFQD_FAST &&
+	    bfqd->peak_rate < device_speed_thresh[dev_type]) {
+		bfqd->device_speed = BFQ_BFQD_SLOW;
+		bfqd->RT_prod = R_slow[dev_type] *
+			T_slow[dev_type];
+	} else if (bfqd->device_speed == BFQ_BFQD_SLOW &&
+		   bfqd->peak_rate > device_speed_thresh[dev_type]) {
+		bfqd->device_speed = BFQ_BFQD_FAST;
+		bfqd->RT_prod = R_fast[dev_type] *
+			T_fast[dev_type];
+	}
+
+	bfq_log(bfqd,
+"dev_type %s dev_speed_class = %s (%llu sects/sec), thresh %llu setcs/sec",
+		dev_type == 0 ? "ROT" : "NONROT",
+		bfqd->device_speed == BFQ_BFQD_FAST ? "FAST" : "SLOW",
+		bfqd->device_speed == BFQ_BFQD_FAST ?
+		(USEC_PER_SEC*(u64)R_fast[dev_type])>>BFQ_RATE_SHIFT :
+		(USEC_PER_SEC*(u64)R_slow[dev_type])>>BFQ_RATE_SHIFT,
+		(USEC_PER_SEC*(u64)device_speed_thresh[dev_type])>>
+		BFQ_RATE_SHIFT);
+}
+
+void bfq_reset_rate_computation(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct request *rq)
+{
+	if (rq != NULL) { /* new rq dispatch now, reset accordingly */
+		bfqd->last_dispatch = bfqd->first_dispatch = ktime_get_ns() ;
+		bfqd->peak_rate_samples = 1;
+		bfqd->sequential_samples = 0;
+		bfqd->tot_sectors_dispatched = bfqd->last_rq_max_size =
+			blk_rq_sectors(rq);
+	} else /* no new rq dispatched, just reset the number of samples */
+		bfqd->peak_rate_samples = 0; /* full re-init on next disp. */
+
+	bfq_log(bfqd,
+		"reset_rate_computation at end, sample %u/%u tot_sects %llu",
+		bfqd->peak_rate_samples, bfqd->sequential_samples,
+		bfqd->tot_sectors_dispatched);
+}
+
+void bfq_update_rate_reset(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct request *rq)
+{
+	u32 rate, weight, divisor;
+
+	/*
+	 * For the convergence property to hold (see comments on
+	 * bfq_update_peak_rate()) and for the assessment to be
+	 * reliable, a minimum number of samples must be present, and
+	 * a minimum amount of time must have elapsed. If not so, do
+	 * not compute new rate. Just reset parameters, to get ready
+	 * for a new evaluation attempt.
+	 */
+	if (bfqd->peak_rate_samples < BFQ_RATE_MIN_SAMPLES ||
+	    bfqd->delta_from_first < BFQ_RATE_MIN_INTERVAL) {
+		bfq_log(bfqd,
+	"update_rate_reset: only resetting, delta_first %lluus samples %d",
+			bfqd->delta_from_first>>10, bfqd->peak_rate_samples);
+		goto reset_computation;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * If a new request completion has occurred after last
+	 * dispatch, then, to approximate the rate at which requests
+	 * have been served by the device, it is more precise to
+	 * extend the observation interval to the last completion.
+	 */
+	bfqd->delta_from_first =
+		max_t(u64, bfqd->delta_from_first,
+		      bfqd->last_completion - bfqd->first_dispatch);
+
+	BUG_ON(bfqd->delta_from_first == 0);
+	/*
+	 * Rate computed in sects/usec, and not sects/nsec, for
+	 * precision issues.
+	 */
+	rate = div64_ul(bfqd->tot_sectors_dispatched<<BFQ_RATE_SHIFT,
+			div_u64(bfqd->delta_from_first, NSEC_PER_USEC));
+
+	bfq_log(bfqd,
+"update_rate_reset: tot_sects %llu delta_first %lluus rate %llu sects/s (%d)",
+		bfqd->tot_sectors_dispatched, bfqd->delta_from_first>>10,
+		((USEC_PER_SEC*(u64)rate)>>BFQ_RATE_SHIFT),
+		rate > 20<<BFQ_RATE_SHIFT);
+
+	/*
+	 * Peak rate not updated if:
+	 * - the percentage of sequential dispatches is below 3/4 of the
+	 *   total, and rate is below the current estimated peak rate
+	 * - rate is unreasonably high (> 20M sectors/sec)
+	 */
+	if ((bfqd->peak_rate_samples > (3 * bfqd->sequential_samples)>>2 &&
+	     rate <= bfqd->peak_rate) ||
+		rate > 20<<BFQ_RATE_SHIFT) {
+		bfq_log(bfqd,
+		"update_rate_reset: goto reset, samples %u/%u rate/peak %llu/%llu",
+		bfqd->peak_rate_samples, bfqd->sequential_samples,
+		((USEC_PER_SEC*(u64)rate)>>BFQ_RATE_SHIFT),
+		((USEC_PER_SEC*(u64)bfqd->peak_rate)>>BFQ_RATE_SHIFT));
+		goto reset_computation;
+	} else {
+		bfq_log(bfqd,
+		"update_rate_reset: do update, samples %u/%u rate/peak %llu/%llu",
+		bfqd->peak_rate_samples, bfqd->sequential_samples,
+		((USEC_PER_SEC*(u64)rate)>>BFQ_RATE_SHIFT),
+		((USEC_PER_SEC*(u64)bfqd->peak_rate)>>BFQ_RATE_SHIFT));
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * We have to update the peak rate, at last! To this purpose,
+	 * we use a low-pass filter. We compute the smoothing constant
+	 * of the filter as a function of the 'weight' of the new
+	 * measured rate.
+	 *
+	 * As can be seen in next formulas, we define this weight as a
+	 * quantity proportional to how sequential the workload is,
+	 * and to how long the observation time interval is.
+	 *
+	 * The weight runs from 0 to 8. The maximum value of the
+	 * weight, 8, yields the minimum value for the smoothing
+	 * constant. At this minimum value for the smoothing constant,
+	 * the measured rate contributes for half of the next value of
+	 * the estimated peak rate.
+	 *
+	 * So, the first step is to compute the weight as a function
+	 * of how sequential the workload is. Note that the weight
+	 * cannot reach 9, because bfqd->sequential_samples cannot
+	 * become equal to bfqd->peak_rate_samples, which, in its
+	 * turn, holds true because bfqd->sequential_samples is not
+	 * incremented for the first sample.
+	 */
+	weight = (9 * bfqd->sequential_samples) / bfqd->peak_rate_samples;
+
+	/*
+	 * Second step: further refine the weight as a function of the
+	 * duration of the observation interval.
+	 */
+	weight = min_t(u32, 8,
+		       div_u64(weight * bfqd->delta_from_first,
+			       BFQ_RATE_REF_INTERVAL));
+
+	/*
+	 * Divisor ranging from 10, for minimum weight, to 2, for
+	 * maximum weight.
+	 */
+	divisor = 10 - weight;
+	BUG_ON(divisor == 0);
+
+	/*
+	 * Finally, update peak rate:
+	 *
+	 * peak_rate = peak_rate * (divisor-1) / divisor  +  rate / divisor
+	 */
+	bfqd->peak_rate *= divisor-1;
+	bfqd->peak_rate /= divisor;
+	rate /= divisor; /* smoothing constant alpha = 1/divisor */
+
+	bfq_log(bfqd,
+		"update_rate_reset: divisor %d tmp_peak_rate %llu tmp_rate %u",
+		divisor,
+		((USEC_PER_SEC*(u64)bfqd->peak_rate)>>BFQ_RATE_SHIFT),
+		(u32)((USEC_PER_SEC*(u64)rate)>>BFQ_RATE_SHIFT));
+
+	BUG_ON(bfqd->peak_rate == 0);
+	BUG_ON(bfqd->peak_rate > 20<<BFQ_RATE_SHIFT);
+
+	bfqd->peak_rate += rate;
+	update_thr_responsiveness_params(bfqd);
+	BUG_ON(bfqd->peak_rate > 20<<BFQ_RATE_SHIFT);
+
+reset_computation:
+	bfq_reset_rate_computation(bfqd, rq);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Update the read/write peak rate (the main quantity used for
+ * auto-tuning, see update_thr_responsiveness_params()).
+ *
+ * It is not trivial to estimate the peak rate (correctly): because of
+ * the presence of sw and hw queues between the scheduler and the
+ * device components that finally serve I/O requests, it is hard to
+ * say exactly when a given dispatched request is served inside the
+ * device, and for how long. As a consequence, it is hard to know
+ * precisely at what rate a given set of requests is actually served
+ * by the device.
+ *
+ * On the opposite end, the dispatch time of any request is trivially
+ * available, and, from this piece of information, the "dispatch rate"
+ * of requests can be immediately computed. So, the idea in the next
+ * function is to use what is known, namely request dispatch times
+ * (plus, when useful, request completion times), to estimate what is
+ * unknown, namely in-device request service rate.
+ *
+ * The main issue is that, because of the above facts, the rate at
+ * which a certain set of requests is dispatched over a certain time
+ * interval can vary greatly with respect to the rate at which the
+ * same requests are then served. But, since the size of any
+ * intermediate queue is limited, and the service scheme is lossless
+ * (no request is silently dropped), the following obvious convergence
+ * property holds: the number of requests dispatched MUST become
+ * closer and closer to the number of requests completed as the
+ * observation interval grows. This is the key property used in
+ * the next function to estimate the peak service rate as a function
+ * of the observed dispatch rate. The function assumes to be invoked
+ * on every request dispatch.
+ */
+void bfq_update_peak_rate(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct request *rq)
+{
+	u64 now_ns = ktime_get_ns();
+
+	if (bfqd->peak_rate_samples == 0) { /* first dispatch */
+		bfq_log(bfqd,
+		"update_peak_rate: goto reset, samples %d",
+				bfqd->peak_rate_samples) ;
+		bfq_reset_rate_computation(bfqd, rq);
+		goto update_last_values; /* will add one sample */
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Device idle for very long: the observation interval lasting
+	 * up to this dispatch cannot be a valid observation interval
+	 * for computing a new peak rate (similarly to the late-
+	 * completion event in bfq_completed_request()). Go to
+	 * update_rate_and_reset to have the following three steps
+	 * taken:
+	 * - close the observation interval at the last (previous)
+	 *   request dispatch or completion
+	 * - compute rate, if possible, for that observation interval
+	 * - start a new observation interval with this dispatch
+	 */
+	if (now_ns - bfqd->last_dispatch > 100*NSEC_PER_MSEC &&
+	    bfqd->rq_in_driver == 0) {
+		bfq_log(bfqd,
+"update_peak_rate: jumping to updating&resetting delta_last %lluus samples %d",
+			(now_ns - bfqd->last_dispatch)>>10,
+			bfqd->peak_rate_samples) ;
+		goto update_rate_and_reset;
+	}
+
+	/* Update sampling information */
+	bfqd->peak_rate_samples++;
+
+	if ((bfqd->rq_in_driver > 0 ||
+		now_ns - bfqd->last_completion < BFQ_MIN_TT)
+	     && get_sdist(bfqd->last_position, rq) < BFQQ_SEEK_THR)
+		bfqd->sequential_samples++;
+
+	bfqd->tot_sectors_dispatched += blk_rq_sectors(rq);
 
-	if (bfqq->wr_cur_max_time == bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time)
-		timeout_coeff = 1;
+	/* Reset max observed rq size every 32 dispatches */
+	if (likely(bfqd->peak_rate_samples % 32))
+		bfqd->last_rq_max_size =
+			max_t(u32, blk_rq_sectors(rq), bfqd->last_rq_max_size);
 	else
-		timeout_coeff = bfqq->entity.weight / bfqq->entity.orig_weight;
+		bfqd->last_rq_max_size = blk_rq_sectors(rq);
 
-	bfqd->last_budget_start = ktime_get();
+	bfqd->delta_from_first = now_ns - bfqd->first_dispatch;
 
-	bfq_clear_bfqq_budget_new(bfqq);
-	bfqq->budget_timeout = jiffies +
-		bfqd->bfq_timeout[bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq)] * timeout_coeff;
+	bfq_log(bfqd,
+	"update_peak_rate: added samples %u/%u tot_sects %llu delta_first %lluus",
+		bfqd->peak_rate_samples, bfqd->sequential_samples,
+		bfqd->tot_sectors_dispatched,
+		bfqd->delta_from_first>>10);
 
-	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "set budget_timeout %u",
-		jiffies_to_msecs(bfqd->bfq_timeout[bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq)] *
-		timeout_coeff));
+	/* Target observation interval not yet reached, go on sampling */
+	if (bfqd->delta_from_first < BFQ_RATE_REF_INTERVAL)
+		goto update_last_values;
+
+update_rate_and_reset:
+	bfq_update_rate_reset(bfqd, rq);
+update_last_values:
+	bfqd->last_position = blk_rq_pos(rq) + blk_rq_sectors(rq);
+	bfqd->last_dispatch = now_ns;
+
+	bfq_log(bfqd,
+	"update_peak_rate: delta_first %lluus last_pos %llu peak_rate %llu",
+		(now_ns - bfqd->first_dispatch)>>10,
+		(unsigned long long) bfqd->last_position,
+		((USEC_PER_SEC*(u64)bfqd->peak_rate)>>BFQ_RATE_SHIFT));
+	bfq_log(bfqd,
+	"update_peak_rate: samples at end %d", bfqd->peak_rate_samples);
 }
 
 /*
- * Move request from internal lists to the request queue dispatch list.
+ * Move request from internal lists to the dispatch list of the request queue
  */
 static void bfq_dispatch_insert(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
 {
-	struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
 	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
 
 	/*
@@ -1794,15 +2610,10 @@ static void bfq_dispatch_insert(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
 	 * incrementing bfqq->dispatched.
 	 */
 	bfqq->dispatched++;
+	bfq_update_peak_rate(q->elevator->elevator_data, rq);
+
 	bfq_remove_request(rq);
 	elv_dispatch_sort(q, rq);
-
-	if (bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq))
-		bfqd->sync_flight++;
-#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
-	bfqg_stats_update_dispatch(bfqq_group(bfqq), blk_rq_bytes(rq),
-				   rq->cmd_flags);
-#endif
 }
 
 /*
@@ -1822,25 +2633,16 @@ static struct request *bfq_check_fifo(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 
 	rq = rq_entry_fifo(bfqq->fifo.next);
 
-	if (time_before(jiffies, rq->fifo_time))
+	if (ktime_get_ns() < rq->fifo_time)
 		return NULL;
 
 	return rq;
 }
 
-static int bfq_bfqq_budget_left(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
-{
-	struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
-
-	return entity->budget - entity->service;
-}
-
 static void __bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 {
 	BUG_ON(bfqq != bfqd->in_service_queue);
 
-	__bfq_bfqd_reset_in_service(bfqd);
-
 	/*
 	 * If this bfqq is shared between multiple processes, check
 	 * to make sure that those processes are still issuing I/Os
@@ -1851,20 +2653,30 @@ static void __bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 		bfq_mark_bfqq_split_coop(bfqq);
 
 	if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list)) {
-		/*
-		 * Overloading budget_timeout field to store the time
-		 * at which the queue remains with no backlog; used by
-		 * the weight-raising mechanism.
-		 */
-		bfqq->budget_timeout = jiffies;
-		bfq_del_bfqq_busy(bfqd, bfqq, 1);
+		if (bfqq->dispatched == 0)
+			/*
+			 * Overloading budget_timeout field to store
+			 * the time at which the queue remains with no
+			 * backlog and no outstanding request; used by
+			 * the weight-raising mechanism.
+			 */
+			bfqq->budget_timeout = jiffies;
+
+		bfq_del_bfqq_busy(bfqd, bfqq, true);
 	} else {
-		bfq_activate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
+		bfq_requeue_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq);
 		/*
 		 * Resort priority tree of potential close cooperators.
 		 */
 		bfq_pos_tree_add_move(bfqd, bfqq);
 	}
+
+	/*
+	 * All in-service entities must have been properly deactivated
+	 * or requeued before executing the next function, which
+	 * resets all in-service entites as no more in service.
+	 */
+	__bfq_bfqd_reset_in_service(bfqd);
 }
 
 /**
@@ -1883,10 +2695,19 @@ static void __bfq_bfqq_recalc_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 	struct request *next_rq;
 	int budget, min_budget;
 
-	budget = bfqq->max_budget;
+	BUG_ON(bfqq != bfqd->in_service_queue);
+
 	min_budget = bfq_min_budget(bfqd);
 
-	BUG_ON(bfqq != bfqd->in_service_queue);
+	if (bfqq->wr_coeff == 1)
+		budget = bfqq->max_budget;
+	else /*
+	      * Use a constant, low budget for weight-raised queues,
+	      * to help achieve a low latency. Keep it slightly higher
+	      * than the minimum possible budget, to cause a little
+	      * bit fewer expirations.
+	      */
+		budget = 2 * min_budget;
 
 	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "recalc_budg: last budg %d, budg left %d",
 		bfqq->entity.budget, bfq_bfqq_budget_left(bfqq));
@@ -1895,7 +2716,7 @@ static void __bfq_bfqq_recalc_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "recalc_budg: sync %d, seeky %d",
 		bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq), BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqd->in_service_queue));
 
-	if (bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq)) {
+	if (bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) && bfqq->wr_coeff == 1) {
 		switch (reason) {
 		/*
 		 * Caveat: in all the following cases we trade latency
@@ -1937,14 +2758,10 @@ static void __bfq_bfqq_recalc_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 			break;
 		case BFQ_BFQQ_BUDGET_TIMEOUT:
 			/*
-			 * We double the budget here because: 1) it
-			 * gives the chance to boost the throughput if
-			 * this is not a seeky process (which may have
-			 * bumped into this timeout because of, e.g.,
-			 * ZBR), 2) together with charge_full_budget
-			 * it helps give seeky processes higher
-			 * timestamps, and hence be served less
-			 * frequently.
+			 * We double the budget here because it gives
+			 * the chance to boost the throughput if this
+			 * is not a seeky process (and has bumped into
+			 * this timeout because of, e.g., ZBR).
 			 */
 			budget = min(budget * 2, bfqd->bfq_max_budget);
 			break;
@@ -1961,17 +2778,49 @@ static void __bfq_bfqq_recalc_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 			budget = min(budget * 4, bfqd->bfq_max_budget);
 			break;
 		case BFQ_BFQQ_NO_MORE_REQUESTS:
-		       /*
-			* Leave the budget unchanged.
-			*/
+			/*
+			 * For queues that expire for this reason, it
+			 * is particularly important to keep the
+			 * budget close to the actual service they
+			 * need. Doing so reduces the timestamp
+			 * misalignment problem described in the
+			 * comments in the body of
+			 * __bfq_activate_entity. In fact, suppose
+			 * that a queue systematically expires for
+			 * BFQ_BFQQ_NO_MORE_REQUESTS and presents a
+			 * new request in time to enjoy timestamp
+			 * back-shifting. The larger the budget of the
+			 * queue is with respect to the service the
+			 * queue actually requests in each service
+			 * slot, the more times the queue can be
+			 * reactivated with the same virtual finish
+			 * time. It follows that, even if this finish
+			 * time is pushed to the system virtual time
+			 * to reduce the consequent timestamp
+			 * misalignment, the queue unjustly enjoys for
+			 * many re-activations a lower finish time
+			 * than all newly activated queues.
+			 *
+			 * The service needed by bfqq is measured
+			 * quite precisely by bfqq->entity.service.
+			 * Since bfqq does not enjoy device idling,
+			 * bfqq->entity.service is equal to the number
+			 * of sectors that the process associated with
+			 * bfqq requested to read/write before waiting
+			 * for request completions, or blocking for
+			 * other reasons.
+			 */
+			budget = max_t(int, bfqq->entity.service, min_budget);
+			break;
 		default:
 			return;
 		}
-	} else
+	} else if (!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq))
 		/*
-		 * Async queues get always the maximum possible budget
-		 * (their ability to dispatch is limited by
-		 * @bfqd->bfq_max_budget_async_rq).
+		 * Async queues get always the maximum possible
+		 * budget, as for them we do not care about latency
+		 * (in addition, their ability to dispatch is limited
+		 * by the charging factor).
 		 */
 		budget = bfqd->bfq_max_budget;
 
@@ -1982,160 +2831,120 @@ static void __bfq_bfqq_recalc_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 		bfqq->max_budget = min(bfqq->max_budget, bfqd->bfq_max_budget);
 
 	/*
-	 * Make sure that we have enough budget for the next request.
-	 * Since the finish time of the bfqq must be kept in sync with
-	 * the budget, be sure to call __bfq_bfqq_expire() after the
+	 * If there is still backlog, then assign a new budget, making
+	 * sure that it is large enough for the next request.  Since
+	 * the finish time of bfqq must be kept in sync with the
+	 * budget, be sure to call __bfq_bfqq_expire() *after* this
 	 * update.
+	 *
+	 * If there is no backlog, then no need to update the budget;
+	 * it will be updated on the arrival of a new request.
 	 */
 	next_rq = bfqq->next_rq;
-	if (next_rq)
+	if (next_rq) {
+		BUG_ON(reason == BFQ_BFQQ_TOO_IDLE ||
+		       reason == BFQ_BFQQ_NO_MORE_REQUESTS);
 		bfqq->entity.budget = max_t(unsigned long, bfqq->max_budget,
 					    bfq_serv_to_charge(next_rq, bfqq));
-	else
-		bfqq->entity.budget = bfqq->max_budget;
+		BUG_ON(!bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq));
+		BUG_ON(RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list));
+	}
 
 	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "head sect: %u, new budget %d",
 			next_rq ? blk_rq_sectors(next_rq) : 0,
 			bfqq->entity.budget);
 }
 
-static unsigned long bfq_calc_max_budget(u64 peak_rate, u64 timeout)
-{
-	unsigned long max_budget;
-
-	/*
-	 * The max_budget calculated when autotuning is equal to the
-	 * amount of sectors transfered in timeout_sync at the
-	 * estimated peak rate.
-	 */
-	max_budget = (unsigned long)(peak_rate * 1000 *
-				     timeout >> BFQ_RATE_SHIFT);
-
-	return max_budget;
-}
-
 /*
- * In addition to updating the peak rate, checks whether the process
- * is "slow", and returns 1 if so. This slow flag is used, in addition
- * to the budget timeout, to reduce the amount of service provided to
- * seeky processes, and hence reduce their chances to lower the
- * throughput. See the code for more details.
+ * Return true if the process associated with bfqq is "slow". The slow
+ * flag is used, in addition to the budget timeout, to reduce the
+ * amount of service provided to seeky processes, and thus reduce
+ * their chances to lower the throughput. More details in the comments
+ * on the function bfq_bfqq_expire().
+ *
+ * An important observation is in order: as discussed in the comments
+ * on the function bfq_update_peak_rate(), with devices with internal
+ * queues, it is hard if ever possible to know when and for how long
+ * an I/O request is processed by the device (apart from the trivial
+ * I/O pattern where a new request is dispatched only after the
+ * previous one has been completed). This makes it hard to evaluate
+ * the real rate at which the I/O requests of each bfq_queue are
+ * served.  In fact, for an I/O scheduler like BFQ, serving a
+ * bfq_queue means just dispatching its requests during its service
+ * slot (i.e., until the budget of the queue is exhausted, or the
+ * queue remains idle, or, finally, a timeout fires). But, during the
+ * service slot of a bfq_queue, around 100 ms at most, the device may
+ * be even still processing requests of bfq_queues served in previous
+ * service slots. On the opposite end, the requests of the in-service
+ * bfq_queue may be completed after the service slot of the queue
+ * finishes.
+ *
+ * Anyway, unless more sophisticated solutions are used
+ * (where possible), the sum of the sizes of the requests dispatched
+ * during the service slot of a bfq_queue is probably the only
+ * approximation available for the service received by the bfq_queue
+ * during its service slot. And this sum is the quantity used in this
+ * function to evaluate the I/O speed of a process.
  */
-static bool bfq_update_peak_rate(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
-				 bool compensate, enum bfqq_expiration reason)
+static bool bfq_bfqq_is_slow(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+				 bool compensate, enum bfqq_expiration reason,
+				 unsigned long *delta_ms)
 {
-	u64 bw, usecs, expected, timeout;
-	ktime_t delta;
-	int update = 0;
+	ktime_t delta_ktime;
+	u32 delta_usecs;
+	bool slow = BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq); /* if delta too short, use seekyness */
 
-	if (!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) || bfq_bfqq_budget_new(bfqq))
+	if (!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq))
 		return false;
 
 	if (compensate)
-		delta = bfqd->last_idling_start;
+		delta_ktime = bfqd->last_idling_start;
 	else
-		delta = ktime_get();
-	delta = ktime_sub(delta, bfqd->last_budget_start);
-	usecs = ktime_to_us(delta);
-
-	/* Don't trust short/unrealistic values. */
-	if (usecs < 100 || usecs >= LONG_MAX)
-		return false;
-
-	/*
-	 * Calculate the bandwidth for the last slice.  We use a 64 bit
-	 * value to store the peak rate, in sectors per usec in fixed
-	 * point math.  We do so to have enough precision in the estimate
-	 * and to avoid overflows.
-	 */
-	bw = (u64)bfqq->entity.service << BFQ_RATE_SHIFT;
-	do_div(bw, (unsigned long)usecs);
+		delta_ktime = ktime_get();
+	delta_ktime = ktime_sub(delta_ktime, bfqd->last_budget_start);
+	delta_usecs = ktime_to_us(delta_ktime);
+
+	/* don't trust short/unrealistic values. */
+	if (delta_usecs < 1000 || delta_usecs >= LONG_MAX) {
+		if (blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue))
+			 /*
+			  * give same worst-case guarantees as idling
+			  * for seeky
+			  */
+			*delta_ms = BFQ_MIN_TT / NSEC_PER_MSEC;
+		else /* charge at least one seek */
+			*delta_ms = bfq_slice_idle / NSEC_PER_MSEC;
+
+		bfq_log(bfqd, "bfq_bfqq_is_slow: unrealistic %u", delta_usecs);
+
+		return slow;
+	}
 
-	timeout = jiffies_to_msecs(bfqd->bfq_timeout[BLK_RW_SYNC]);
+	*delta_ms = delta_usecs / USEC_PER_MSEC;
 
 	/*
-	 * Use only long (> 20ms) intervals to filter out spikes for
-	 * the peak rate estimation.
+	 * Use only long (> 20ms) intervals to filter out excessive
+	 * spikes in service rate estimation.
 	 */
-	if (usecs > 20000) {
-		if (bw > bfqd->peak_rate ||
-		   (!BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq) &&
-		    reason == BFQ_BFQQ_BUDGET_TIMEOUT)) {
-			bfq_log(bfqd, "measured bw =%llu", bw);
-			/*
-			 * To smooth oscillations use a low-pass filter with
-			 * alpha=7/8, i.e.,
-			 * new_rate = (7/8) * old_rate + (1/8) * bw
-			 */
-			do_div(bw, 8);
-			if (bw == 0)
-				return 0;
-			bfqd->peak_rate *= 7;
-			do_div(bfqd->peak_rate, 8);
-			bfqd->peak_rate += bw;
-			update = 1;
-			bfq_log(bfqd, "new peak_rate=%llu", bfqd->peak_rate);
-		}
-
-		update |= bfqd->peak_rate_samples == BFQ_PEAK_RATE_SAMPLES - 1;
-
-		if (bfqd->peak_rate_samples < BFQ_PEAK_RATE_SAMPLES)
-			bfqd->peak_rate_samples++;
-
-		if (bfqd->peak_rate_samples == BFQ_PEAK_RATE_SAMPLES &&
-		    update) {
-			int dev_type = blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue);
-
-			if (bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget == 0) {
-				bfqd->bfq_max_budget =
-					bfq_calc_max_budget(bfqd->peak_rate,
-							    timeout);
-				bfq_log(bfqd, "new max_budget=%d",
-					bfqd->bfq_max_budget);
-			}
-			if (bfqd->device_speed == BFQ_BFQD_FAST &&
-			    bfqd->peak_rate < device_speed_thresh[dev_type]) {
-				bfqd->device_speed = BFQ_BFQD_SLOW;
-				bfqd->RT_prod = R_slow[dev_type] *
-						T_slow[dev_type];
-			} else if (bfqd->device_speed == BFQ_BFQD_SLOW &&
-			    bfqd->peak_rate > device_speed_thresh[dev_type]) {
-				bfqd->device_speed = BFQ_BFQD_FAST;
-				bfqd->RT_prod = R_fast[dev_type] *
-						T_fast[dev_type];
-			}
-		}
+	if (delta_usecs > 20000) {
+		/*
+		 * Caveat for rotational devices: processes doing I/O
+		 * in the slower disk zones tend to be slow(er) even
+		 * if not seeky. In this respect, the estimated peak
+		 * rate is likely to be an average over the disk
+		 * surface. Accordingly, to not be too harsh with
+		 * unlucky processes, a process is deemed slow only if
+		 * its rate has been lower than half of the estimated
+		 * peak rate.
+		 */
+		slow = bfqq->entity.service < bfqd->bfq_max_budget / 2;
+		bfq_log(bfqd, "bfq_bfqq_is_slow: relative rate %d/%d",
+			bfqq->entity.service, bfqd->bfq_max_budget);
 	}
 
-	/*
-	 * If the process has been served for a too short time
-	 * interval to let its possible sequential accesses prevail on
-	 * the initial seek time needed to move the disk head on the
-	 * first sector it requested, then give the process a chance
-	 * and for the moment return false.
-	 */
-	if (bfqq->entity.budget <= bfq_max_budget(bfqd) / 8)
-		return false;
-
-	/*
-	 * A process is considered ``slow'' (i.e., seeky, so that we
-	 * cannot treat it fairly in the service domain, as it would
-	 * slow down too much the other processes) if, when a slice
-	 * ends for whatever reason, it has received service at a
-	 * rate that would not be high enough to complete the budget
-	 * before the budget timeout expiration.
-	 */
-	expected = bw * 1000 * timeout >> BFQ_RATE_SHIFT;
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "bfq_bfqq_is_slow: slow %d", slow);
 
-	/*
-	 * Caveat: processes doing IO in the slower disk zones will
-	 * tend to be slow(er) even if not seeky. And the estimated
-	 * peak rate will actually be an average over the disk
-	 * surface. Hence, to not be too harsh with unlucky processes,
-	 * we keep a budget/3 margin of safety before declaring a
-	 * process slow.
-	 */
-	return expected > (4 * bfqq->entity.budget) / 3;
+	return slow;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -2193,20 +3002,35 @@ static bool bfq_update_peak_rate(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 static unsigned long bfq_bfqq_softrt_next_start(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 						struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 {
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+"softrt_next_start: service_blkg %lu soft_rate %u sects/sec interval %u",
+		     bfqq->service_from_backlogged,
+		     bfqd->bfq_wr_max_softrt_rate,
+		     jiffies_to_msecs(HZ * bfqq->service_from_backlogged /
+				      bfqd->bfq_wr_max_softrt_rate));
+
 	return max(bfqq->last_idle_bklogged +
 		   HZ * bfqq->service_from_backlogged /
 		   bfqd->bfq_wr_max_softrt_rate,
-		   jiffies + bfqq->bfqd->bfq_slice_idle + 4);
+		   jiffies + nsecs_to_jiffies(bfqq->bfqd->bfq_slice_idle) + 4);
 }
 
 /*
- * Return the largest-possible time instant such that, for as long as possible,
- * the current time will be lower than this time instant according to the macro
- * time_is_before_jiffies().
+ * Return the farthest future time instant according to jiffies
+ * macros.
  */
-static unsigned long bfq_infinity_from_now(unsigned long now)
+static unsigned long bfq_greatest_from_now(void)
 {
-	return now + ULONG_MAX / 2;
+	return jiffies + MAX_JIFFY_OFFSET;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Return the farthest past time instant according to jiffies
+ * macros.
+ */
+static unsigned long bfq_smallest_from_now(void)
+{
+	return jiffies - MAX_JIFFY_OFFSET;
 }
 
 /**
@@ -2216,28 +3040,24 @@ static unsigned long bfq_infinity_from_now(unsigned long now)
  * @compensate: if true, compensate for the time spent idling.
  * @reason: the reason causing the expiration.
  *
+ * If the process associated with bfqq does slow I/O (e.g., because it
+ * issues random requests), we charge bfqq with the time it has been
+ * in service instead of the service it has received (see
+ * bfq_bfqq_charge_time for details on how this goal is achieved). As
+ * a consequence, bfqq will typically get higher timestamps upon
+ * reactivation, and hence it will be rescheduled as if it had
+ * received more service than what it has actually received. In the
+ * end, bfqq receives less service in proportion to how slowly its
+ * associated process consumes its budgets (and hence how seriously it
+ * tends to lower the throughput). In addition, this time-charging
+ * strategy guarantees time fairness among slow processes. In
+ * contrast, if the process associated with bfqq is not slow, we
+ * charge bfqq exactly with the service it has received.
  *
- * If the process associated to the queue is slow (i.e., seeky), or in
- * case of budget timeout, or, finally, if it is async, we
- * artificially charge it an entire budget (independently of the
- * actual service it received). As a consequence, the queue will get
- * higher timestamps than the correct ones upon reactivation, and
- * hence it will be rescheduled as if it had received more service
- * than what it actually received. In the end, this class of processes
- * will receive less service in proportion to how slowly they consume
- * their budgets (and hence how seriously they tend to lower the
- * throughput).
- *
- * In contrast, when a queue expires because it has been idling for
- * too much or because it exhausted its budget, we do not touch the
- * amount of service it has received. Hence when the queue will be
- * reactivated and its timestamps updated, the latter will be in sync
- * with the actual service received by the queue until expiration.
- *
- * Charging a full budget to the first type of queues and the exact
- * service to the others has the effect of using the WF2Q+ policy to
- * schedule the former on a timeslice basis, without violating the
- * service domain guarantees of the latter.
+ * Charging time to the first type of queues and the exact service to
+ * the other has the effect of using the WF2Q+ policy to schedule the
+ * former on a timeslice basis, without violating service domain
+ * guarantees among the latter.
  */
 static void bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 			    struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
@@ -2245,41 +3065,52 @@ static void bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 			    enum bfqq_expiration reason)
 {
 	bool slow;
+	unsigned long delta = 0;
+	struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
 
 	BUG_ON(bfqq != bfqd->in_service_queue);
 
 	/*
-	 * Update disk peak rate for autotuning and check whether the
-	 * process is slow (see bfq_update_peak_rate).
+	 * Check whether the process is slow (see bfq_bfqq_is_slow).
 	 */
-	slow = bfq_update_peak_rate(bfqd, bfqq, compensate, reason);
+	slow = bfq_bfqq_is_slow(bfqd, bfqq, compensate, reason, &delta);
 
 	/*
-	 * As above explained, 'punish' slow (i.e., seeky), timed-out
-	 * and async queues, to favor sequential sync workloads.
+	 * Increase service_from_backlogged before next statement,
+	 * because the possible next invocation of
+	 * bfq_bfqq_charge_time would likely inflate
+	 * entity->service. In contrast, service_from_backlogged must
+	 * contain real service, to enable the soft real-time
+	 * heuristic to correctly compute the bandwidth consumed by
+	 * bfqq.
+	 */
+	bfqq->service_from_backlogged += entity->service;
+
+	/*
+	 * As above explained, charge slow (typically seeky) and
+	 * timed-out queues with the time and not the service
+	 * received, to favor sequential workloads.
 	 *
-	 * Processes doing I/O in the slower disk zones will tend to be
-	 * slow(er) even if not seeky. Hence, since the estimated peak
-	 * rate is actually an average over the disk surface, these
-	 * processes may timeout just for bad luck. To avoid punishing
-	 * them we do not charge a full budget to a process that
-	 * succeeded in consuming at least 2/3 of its budget.
+	 * Processes doing I/O in the slower disk zones will tend to
+	 * be slow(er) even if not seeky. Therefore, since the
+	 * estimated peak rate is actually an average over the disk
+	 * surface, these processes may timeout just for bad luck. To
+	 * avoid punishing them, do not charge time to processes that
+	 * succeeded in consuming at least 2/3 of their budget. This
+	 * allows BFQ to preserve enough elasticity to still perform
+	 * bandwidth, and not time, distribution with little unlucky
+	 * or quasi-sequential processes.
 	 */
-	if (slow || (reason == BFQ_BFQQ_BUDGET_TIMEOUT &&
-		     bfq_bfqq_budget_left(bfqq) >=  bfqq->entity.budget / 3))
-		bfq_bfqq_charge_full_budget(bfqq);
+	if (bfqq->wr_coeff == 1 &&
+	    (slow ||
+	     (reason == BFQ_BFQQ_BUDGET_TIMEOUT &&
+	      bfq_bfqq_budget_left(bfqq) >=  entity->budget / 3)))
+		bfq_bfqq_charge_time(bfqd, bfqq, delta);
 
-	bfqq->service_from_backlogged += bfqq->entity.service;
-
-	if (BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq) && reason == BFQ_BFQQ_BUDGET_TIMEOUT &&
-	    !bfq_bfqq_constantly_seeky(bfqq)) {
-		bfq_mark_bfqq_constantly_seeky(bfqq);
-		if (!blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue))
-			bfqd->const_seeky_busy_in_flight_queues++;
-	}
+	BUG_ON(bfqq->entity.budget < bfqq->entity.service);
 
 	if (reason == BFQ_BFQQ_TOO_IDLE &&
-	    bfqq->entity.service <= 2 * bfqq->entity.budget / 10)
+	    entity->service <= 2 * entity->budget / 10)
 		bfq_clear_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
 
 	if (bfqd->low_latency && bfqq->wr_coeff == 1)
@@ -2288,19 +3119,23 @@ static void bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 	if (bfqd->low_latency && bfqd->bfq_wr_max_softrt_rate > 0 &&
 	    RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list)) {
 		/*
-		 * If we get here, and there are no outstanding requests,
-		 * then the request pattern is isochronous (see the comments
-		 * to the function bfq_bfqq_softrt_next_start()). Hence we
-		 * can compute soft_rt_next_start. If, instead, the queue
-		 * still has outstanding requests, then we have to wait
-		 * for the completion of all the outstanding requests to
+		 * If we get here, and there are no outstanding
+		 * requests, then the request pattern is isochronous
+		 * (see the comments on the function
+		 * bfq_bfqq_softrt_next_start()). Thus we can compute
+		 * soft_rt_next_start. If, instead, the queue still
+		 * has outstanding requests, then we have to wait for
+		 * the completion of all the outstanding requests to
 		 * discover whether the request pattern is actually
 		 * isochronous.
 		 */
-		if (bfqq->dispatched == 0)
+		BUG_ON(bfqd->busy_queues < 1);
+		if (bfqq->dispatched == 0) {
 			bfqq->soft_rt_next_start =
 				bfq_bfqq_softrt_next_start(bfqd, bfqq);
-		else {
+			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "new soft_rt_next %lu",
+				     bfqq->soft_rt_next_start);
+		} else {
 			/*
 			 * The application is still waiting for the
 			 * completion of one or more requests:
@@ -2317,7 +3152,7 @@ static void bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 			 *    happened to be in the past.
 			 */
 			bfqq->soft_rt_next_start =
-				bfq_infinity_from_now(jiffies);
+				bfq_greatest_from_now();
 			/*
 			 * Schedule an update of soft_rt_next_start to when
 			 * the task may be discovered to be isochronous.
@@ -2327,15 +3162,27 @@ static void bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 	}
 
 	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
-		"expire (%d, slow %d, num_disp %d, idle_win %d)", reason,
-		slow, bfqq->dispatched, bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq));
+		"expire (%d, slow %d, num_disp %d, idle_win %d, weight %d)",
+		     reason, slow, bfqq->dispatched,
+		     bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq), entity->weight);
 
 	/*
 	 * Increase, decrease or leave budget unchanged according to
 	 * reason.
 	 */
+	BUG_ON(bfqq->entity.budget < bfqq->entity.service);
 	__bfq_bfqq_recalc_budget(bfqd, bfqq, reason);
+	BUG_ON(bfqq->next_rq == NULL &&
+	       bfqq->entity.budget < bfqq->entity.service);
 	__bfq_bfqq_expire(bfqd, bfqq);
+
+	BUG_ON(!bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq) && reason == BFQ_BFQQ_BUDGET_EXHAUSTED &&
+		!bfq_class_idle(bfqq));
+
+	if (!bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq) &&
+	    reason != BFQ_BFQQ_BUDGET_TIMEOUT &&
+	    reason != BFQ_BFQQ_BUDGET_EXHAUSTED)
+		bfq_mark_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -2345,20 +3192,17 @@ static void bfq_bfqq_expire(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
  */
 static bool bfq_bfqq_budget_timeout(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 {
-	if (bfq_bfqq_budget_new(bfqq) ||
-	    time_before(jiffies, bfqq->budget_timeout))
-		return false;
-	return true;
+	return time_is_before_eq_jiffies(bfqq->budget_timeout);
 }
 
 /*
- * If we expire a queue that is waiting for the arrival of a new
- * request, we may prevent the fictitious timestamp back-shifting that
- * allows the guarantees of the queue to be preserved (see [1] for
- * this tricky aspect). Hence we return true only if this condition
- * does not hold, or if the queue is slow enough to deserve only to be
- * kicked off for preserving a high throughput.
-*/
+ * If we expire a queue that is actively waiting (i.e., with the
+ * device idled) for the arrival of a new request, then we may incur
+ * the timestamp misalignment problem described in the body of the
+ * function __bfq_activate_entity. Hence we return true only if this
+ * condition does not hold, or if the queue is slow enough to deserve
+ * only to be kicked off for preserving a high throughput.
+ */
 static bool bfq_may_expire_for_budg_timeout(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 {
 	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
@@ -2400,10 +3244,12 @@ static bool bfq_bfqq_may_idle(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 {
 	struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
 	bool idling_boosts_thr, idling_boosts_thr_without_issues,
-		all_queues_seeky, on_hdd_and_not_all_queues_seeky,
 		idling_needed_for_service_guarantees,
 		asymmetric_scenario;
 
+	if (bfqd->strict_guarantees)
+		return true;
+
 	/*
 	 * The next variable takes into account the cases where idling
 	 * boosts the throughput.
@@ -2466,74 +3312,27 @@ static bool bfq_bfqq_may_idle(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 		bfqd->wr_busy_queues == 0;
 
 	/*
-	 * There are then two cases where idling must be performed not
+	 * There is then a case where idling must be performed not
 	 * for throughput concerns, but to preserve service
-	 * guarantees. In the description of these cases, we say, for
-	 * short, that a queue is sequential/random if the process
-	 * associated to the queue issues sequential/random requests
-	 * (in the second case the queue may be tagged as seeky or
-	 * even constantly_seeky).
+	 * guarantees.
 	 *
-	 * To introduce the first case, we note that, since
-	 * bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq) is false if the device is
-	 * NCQ-capable and bfqq is random (see
-	 * bfq_update_idle_window()), then, from the above two
-	 * assignments it follows that
-	 * idling_boosts_thr_without_issues is false if the device is
-	 * NCQ-capable and bfqq is random. Therefore, for this case,
-	 * device idling would never be allowed if we used just
-	 * idling_boosts_thr_without_issues to decide whether to allow
-	 * it. And, beneficially, this would imply that throughput
-	 * would always be boosted also with random I/O on NCQ-capable
-	 * HDDs.
-	 *
-	 * But we must be careful on this point, to avoid an unfair
-	 * treatment for bfqq. In fact, because of the same above
-	 * assignments, idling_boosts_thr_without_issues is, on the
-	 * other hand, true if 1) the device is an HDD and bfqq is
-	 * sequential, and 2) there are no busy weight-raised
-	 * queues. As a consequence, if we used just
-	 * idling_boosts_thr_without_issues to decide whether to idle
-	 * the device, then with an HDD we might easily bump into a
-	 * scenario where queues that are sequential and I/O-bound
-	 * would enjoy idling, whereas random queues would not. The
-	 * latter might then get a low share of the device throughput,
-	 * simply because the former would get many requests served
-	 * after being set as in service, while the latter would not.
-	 *
-	 * To address this issue, we start by setting to true a
-	 * sentinel variable, on_hdd_and_not_all_queues_seeky, if the
-	 * device is rotational and not all queues with pending or
-	 * in-flight requests are constantly seeky (i.e., there are
-	 * active sequential queues, and bfqq might then be mistreated
-	 * if it does not enjoy idling because it is random).
-	 */
-	all_queues_seeky = bfq_bfqq_constantly_seeky(bfqq) &&
-			   bfqd->busy_in_flight_queues ==
-			   bfqd->const_seeky_busy_in_flight_queues;
-
-	on_hdd_and_not_all_queues_seeky =
-		!blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue) && !all_queues_seeky;
-
-	/*
-	 * To introduce the second case where idling needs to be
-	 * performed to preserve service guarantees, we can note that
-	 * allowing the drive to enqueue more than one request at a
-	 * time, and hence delegating de facto final scheduling
-	 * decisions to the drive's internal scheduler, causes loss of
-	 * control on the actual request service order. In particular,
-	 * the critical situation is when requests from different
-	 * processes happens to be present, at the same time, in the
-	 * internal queue(s) of the drive. In such a situation, the
-	 * drive, by deciding the service order of the
-	 * internally-queued requests, does determine also the actual
-	 * throughput distribution among these processes. But the
-	 * drive typically has no notion or concern about per-process
-	 * throughput distribution, and makes its decisions only on a
-	 * per-request basis. Therefore, the service distribution
-	 * enforced by the drive's internal scheduler is likely to
-	 * coincide with the desired device-throughput distribution
-	 * only in a completely symmetric scenario where:
+	 * To introduce this case, we can note that allowing the drive
+	 * to enqueue more than one request at a time, and hence
+	 * delegating de facto final scheduling decisions to the
+	 * drive's internal scheduler, entails loss of control on the
+	 * actual request service order. In particular, the critical
+	 * situation is when requests from different processes happen
+	 * to be present, at the same time, in the internal queue(s)
+	 * of the drive. In such a situation, the drive, by deciding
+	 * the service order of the internally-queued requests, does
+	 * determine also the actual throughput distribution among
+	 * these processes. But the drive typically has no notion or
+	 * concern about per-process throughput distribution, and
+	 * makes its decisions only on a per-request basis. Therefore,
+	 * the service distribution enforced by the drive's internal
+	 * scheduler is likely to coincide with the desired
+	 * device-throughput distribution only in a completely
+	 * symmetric scenario where:
 	 * (i)  each of these processes must get the same throughput as
 	 *      the others;
 	 * (ii) all these processes have the same I/O pattern
@@ -2555,26 +3354,53 @@ static bool bfq_bfqq_may_idle(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 	 * words, only if sub-condition (i) holds, then idling is
 	 * allowed, and the device tends to be prevented from queueing
 	 * many requests, possibly of several processes. The reason
-	 * for not controlling also sub-condition (ii) is that, first,
-	 * in the case of an HDD, the asymmetry in terms of types of
-	 * I/O patterns is already taken in to account in the above
-	 * sentinel variable
-	 * on_hdd_and_not_all_queues_seeky. Secondly, in the case of a
-	 * flash-based device, we prefer however to privilege
-	 * throughput (and idling lowers throughput for this type of
-	 * devices), for the following reasons:
-	 * 1) differently from HDDs, the service time of random
-	 *    requests is not orders of magnitudes lower than the service
-	 *    time of sequential requests; thus, even if processes doing
-	 *    sequential I/O get a preferential treatment with respect to
-	 *    others doing random I/O, the consequences are not as
-	 *    dramatic as with HDDs;
-	 * 2) if a process doing random I/O does need strong
-	 *    throughput guarantees, it is hopefully already being
-	 *    weight-raised, or the user is likely to have assigned it a
-	 *    higher weight than the other processes (and thus
-	 *    sub-condition (i) is likely to be false, which triggers
-	 *    idling).
+	 * for not controlling also sub-condition (ii) is that we
+	 * exploit preemption to preserve guarantees in case of
+	 * symmetric scenarios, even if (ii) does not hold, as
+	 * explained in the next two paragraphs.
+	 *
+	 * Even if a queue, say Q, is expired when it remains idle, Q
+	 * can still preempt the new in-service queue if the next
+	 * request of Q arrives soon (see the comments on
+	 * bfq_bfqq_update_budg_for_activation). If all queues and
+	 * groups have the same weight, this form of preemption,
+	 * combined with the hole-recovery heuristic described in the
+	 * comments on function bfq_bfqq_update_budg_for_activation,
+	 * are enough to preserve a correct bandwidth distribution in
+	 * the mid term, even without idling. In fact, even if not
+	 * idling allows the internal queues of the device to contain
+	 * many requests, and thus to reorder requests, we can rather
+	 * safely assume that the internal scheduler still preserves a
+	 * minimum of mid-term fairness. The motivation for using
+	 * preemption instead of idling is that, by not idling,
+	 * service guarantees are preserved without minimally
+	 * sacrificing throughput. In other words, both a high
+	 * throughput and its desired distribution are obtained.
+	 *
+	 * More precisely, this preemption-based, idleless approach
+	 * provides fairness in terms of IOPS, and not sectors per
+	 * second. This can be seen with a simple example. Suppose
+	 * that there are two queues with the same weight, but that
+	 * the first queue receives requests of 8 sectors, while the
+	 * second queue receives requests of 1024 sectors. In
+	 * addition, suppose that each of the two queues contains at
+	 * most one request at a time, which implies that each queue
+	 * always remains idle after it is served. Finally, after
+	 * remaining idle, each queue receives very quickly a new
+	 * request. It follows that the two queues are served
+	 * alternatively, preempting each other if needed. This
+	 * implies that, although both queues have the same weight,
+	 * the queue with large requests receives a service that is
+	 * 1024/8 times as high as the service received by the other
+	 * queue.
+	 *
+	 * On the other hand, device idling is performed, and thus
+	 * pure sector-domain guarantees are provided, for the
+	 * following queues, which are likely to need stronger
+	 * throughput guarantees: weight-raised queues, and queues
+	 * with a higher weight than other queues. When such queues
+	 * are active, sub-condition (i) is false, which triggers
+	 * device idling.
 	 *
 	 * According to the above considerations, the next variable is
 	 * true (only) if sub-condition (i) holds. To compute the
@@ -2582,7 +3408,7 @@ static bool bfq_bfqq_may_idle(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 	 * the function bfq_symmetric_scenario(), but also check
 	 * whether bfqq is being weight-raised, because
 	 * bfq_symmetric_scenario() does not take into account also
-	 * weight-raised queues (see comments to
+	 * weight-raised queues (see comments on
 	 * bfq_weights_tree_add()).
 	 *
 	 * As a side note, it is worth considering that the above
@@ -2604,17 +3430,16 @@ static bool bfq_bfqq_may_idle(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 	 * bfqq. Such a case is when bfqq became active in a burst of
 	 * queue activations. Queues that became active during a large
 	 * burst benefit only from throughput, as discussed in the
-	 * comments to bfq_handle_burst. Thus, if bfqq became active
+	 * comments on bfq_handle_burst. Thus, if bfqq became active
 	 * in a burst and not idling the device maximizes throughput,
 	 * then the device must no be idled, because not idling the
 	 * device provides bfqq and all other queues in the burst with
-	 * maximum benefit. Combining this and the two cases above, we
-	 * can now establish when idling is actually needed to
-	 * preserve service guarantees.
+	 * maximum benefit. Combining this and the above case, we can
+	 * now establish when idling is actually needed to preserve
+	 * service guarantees.
 	 */
 	idling_needed_for_service_guarantees =
-		(on_hdd_and_not_all_queues_seeky || asymmetric_scenario) &&
-		!bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
+		asymmetric_scenario && !bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
 
 	/*
 	 * We have now all the components we need to compute the return
@@ -2624,6 +3449,16 @@ static bool bfq_bfqq_may_idle(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 	 * 2) idling either boosts the throughput (without issues), or
 	 *    is necessary to preserve service guarantees.
 	 */
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "may_idle: sync %d idling_boosts_thr %d",
+		     bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq), idling_boosts_thr);
+
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+		     "may_idle: wr_busy %d boosts %d IO-bound %d guar %d",
+		     bfqd->wr_busy_queues,
+		     idling_boosts_thr_without_issues,
+		     bfq_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq),
+		     idling_needed_for_service_guarantees);
+
 	return bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) &&
 		(idling_boosts_thr_without_issues ||
 		 idling_needed_for_service_guarantees);
@@ -2635,7 +3470,7 @@ static bool bfq_bfqq_may_idle(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
  * 1) the queue must remain in service and cannot be expired, and
  * 2) the device must be idled to wait for the possible arrival of a new
  *    request for the queue.
- * See the comments to the function bfq_bfqq_may_idle for the reasons
+ * See the comments on the function bfq_bfqq_may_idle for the reasons
  * why performing device idling is the best choice to boost the throughput
  * and preserve service guarantees when bfq_bfqq_may_idle itself
  * returns true.
@@ -2665,7 +3500,7 @@ static struct bfq_queue *bfq_select_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "select_queue: already in-service queue");
 
 	if (bfq_may_expire_for_budg_timeout(bfqq) &&
-	    !timer_pending(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer) &&
+	    !hrtimer_active(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer) &&
 	    !bfq_bfqq_must_idle(bfqq))
 		goto expire;
 
@@ -2685,7 +3520,8 @@ static struct bfq_queue *bfq_select_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 			 * not disable disk idling even when a new request
 			 * arrives.
 			 */
-			if (timer_pending(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer)) {
+			if (bfq_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq)) {
+				BUG_ON(!hrtimer_active(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer));
 				/*
 				 * If we get here: 1) at least a new request
 				 * has arrived but we have not disabled the
@@ -2700,10 +3536,8 @@ static struct bfq_queue *bfq_select_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 				 * So we disable idling.
 				 */
 				bfq_clear_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq);
-				del_timer(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
-#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+				hrtimer_try_to_cancel(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
 				bfqg_stats_update_idle_time(bfqq_group(bfqq));
-#endif
 			}
 			goto keep_queue;
 		}
@@ -2714,7 +3548,7 @@ static struct bfq_queue *bfq_select_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 	 * for a new request, or has requests waiting for a completion and
 	 * may idle after their completion, then keep it anyway.
 	 */
-	if (timer_pending(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer) ||
+	if (hrtimer_active(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer) ||
 	    (bfqq->dispatched != 0 && bfq_bfqq_may_idle(bfqq))) {
 		bfqq = NULL;
 		goto keep_queue;
@@ -2736,6 +3570,9 @@ static void bfq_update_wr_data(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 	struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
 
 	if (bfqq->wr_coeff > 1) { /* queue is being weight-raised */
+		BUG_ON(bfqq->wr_cur_max_time == bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time &&
+		       time_is_after_jiffies(bfqq->last_wr_start_finish));
+
 		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
 			"raising period dur %u/%u msec, old coeff %u, w %d(%d)",
 			jiffies_to_msecs(jiffies - bfqq->last_wr_start_finish),
@@ -2749,22 +3586,30 @@ static void bfq_update_wr_data(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "WARN: pending prio change");
 
 		/*
-		 * If the queue was activated in a burst, or
-		 * too much time has elapsed from the beginning
-		 * of this weight-raising period, or the queue has
-		 * exceeded the acceptable number of cooperations,
-		 * then end weight raising.
+		 * If the queue was activated in a burst, or too much
+		 * time has elapsed from the beginning of this
+		 * weight-raising period, then end weight raising.
 		 */
-		if (bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq) ||
-		    bfq_bfqq_cooperations(bfqq) >= bfqd->bfq_coop_thresh ||
-		    time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->last_wr_start_finish +
-					   bfqq->wr_cur_max_time)) {
-			bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = jiffies;
-			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
-				     "wrais ending at %lu, rais_max_time %u",
-				     bfqq->last_wr_start_finish,
-				     jiffies_to_msecs(bfqq->wr_cur_max_time));
+		if (bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq))
 			bfq_bfqq_end_wr(bfqq);
+		else if (time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->last_wr_start_finish +
+					   bfqq->wr_cur_max_time)) {
+			if (bfqq->wr_cur_max_time != bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time ||
+			time_is_before_jiffies(bfqq->wr_start_at_switch_to_srt +
+					bfq_wr_duration(bfqd)))
+				bfq_bfqq_end_wr(bfqq);
+			else {
+				/* switch back to interactive wr */
+				bfqq->wr_coeff = bfqd->bfq_wr_coeff;
+				bfqq->wr_cur_max_time = bfq_wr_duration(bfqd);
+				bfqq->last_wr_start_finish =
+					bfqq->wr_start_at_switch_to_srt;
+				BUG_ON(time_is_after_jiffies(
+					       bfqq->last_wr_start_finish));
+				bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
+				bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+					"back to interactive wr");
+			}
 		}
 	}
 	/* Update weight both if it must be raised and if it must be lowered */
@@ -2815,13 +3660,29 @@ static int bfq_dispatch_request(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 		 */
 		if (!bfqd->rq_in_driver)
 			bfq_schedule_dispatch(bfqd);
+		BUG_ON(bfqq->entity.budget < bfqq->entity.service);
 		goto expire;
 	}
 
+	BUG_ON(bfqq->entity.budget < bfqq->entity.service);
 	/* Finally, insert request into driver dispatch list. */
 	bfq_bfqq_served(bfqq, service_to_charge);
+
+	BUG_ON(bfqq->entity.budget < bfqq->entity.service);
+
 	bfq_dispatch_insert(bfqd->queue, rq);
 
+	/*
+	 * If weight raising has to terminate for bfqq, then next
+	 * function causes an immediate update of bfqq's weight,
+	 * without waiting for next activation. As a consequence, on
+	 * expiration, bfqq will be timestamped as if has never been
+	 * weight-raised during this service slot, even if it has
+	 * received part or even most of the service as a
+	 * weight-raised queue. This inflates bfqq's timestamps, which
+	 * is beneficial, as bfqq is then more willing to leave the
+	 * device immediately to possible other weight-raised queues.
+	 */
 	bfq_update_wr_data(bfqd, bfqq);
 
 	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
@@ -2837,9 +3698,7 @@ static int bfq_dispatch_request(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 		bfqd->in_service_bic = RQ_BIC(rq);
 	}
 
-	if (bfqd->busy_queues > 1 && ((!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) &&
-	    dispatched >= bfqd->bfq_max_budget_async_rq) ||
-	    bfq_class_idle(bfqq)))
+	if (bfqd->busy_queues > 1 && bfq_class_idle(bfqq))
 		goto expire;
 
 	return dispatched;
@@ -2885,8 +3744,8 @@ static int bfq_forced_dispatch(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 		st = bfq_entity_service_tree(&bfqq->entity);
 
 		dispatched += __bfq_forced_dispatch_bfqq(bfqq);
+
 		bfqq->max_budget = bfq_max_budget(bfqd);
-
 		bfq_forget_idle(st);
 	}
 
@@ -2899,37 +3758,37 @@ static int bfq_dispatch_requests(struct request_queue *q, int force)
 {
 	struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
 	struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
-	int max_dispatch;
 
 	bfq_log(bfqd, "dispatch requests: %d busy queues", bfqd->busy_queues);
+
 	if (bfqd->busy_queues == 0)
 		return 0;
 
 	if (unlikely(force))
 		return bfq_forced_dispatch(bfqd);
 
+	/*
+	 * Force device to serve one request at a time if
+	 * strict_guarantees is true. Forcing this service scheme is
+	 * currently the ONLY way to guarantee that the request
+	 * service order enforced by the scheduler is respected by a
+	 * queueing device. Otherwise the device is free even to make
+	 * some unlucky request wait for as long as the device
+	 * wishes.
+	 *
+	 * Of course, serving one request at at time may cause loss of
+	 * throughput.
+	 */
+	if (bfqd->strict_guarantees && bfqd->rq_in_driver > 0)
+		return 0;
+
 	bfqq = bfq_select_queue(bfqd);
 	if (!bfqq)
 		return 0;
 
-	if (bfq_class_idle(bfqq))
-		max_dispatch = 1;
+	BUG_ON(bfqq->entity.budget < bfqq->entity.service);
 
-	if (!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq))
-		max_dispatch = bfqd->bfq_max_budget_async_rq;
-
-	if (!bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) && bfqq->dispatched >= max_dispatch) {
-		if (bfqd->busy_queues > 1)
-			return 0;
-		if (bfqq->dispatched >= 4 * max_dispatch)
-			return 0;
-	}
-
-	if (bfqd->sync_flight != 0 && !bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq))
-		return 0;
-
-	bfq_clear_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq);
-	BUG_ON(timer_pending(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer));
+	BUG_ON(bfq_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq));
 
 	if (!bfq_dispatch_request(bfqd, bfqq))
 		return 0;
@@ -2937,6 +3796,8 @@ static int bfq_dispatch_requests(struct request_queue *q, int force)
 	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "dispatched %s request",
 			bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq) ? "sync" : "async");
 
+	BUG_ON(bfqq->next_rq == NULL &&
+	       bfqq->entity.budget < bfqq->entity.service);
 	return 1;
 }
 
@@ -2948,23 +3809,21 @@ static int bfq_dispatch_requests(struct request_queue *q, int force)
  */
 static void bfq_put_queue(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 {
-	struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
 #ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 	struct bfq_group *bfqg = bfqq_group(bfqq);
 #endif
 
-	BUG_ON(atomic_read(&bfqq->ref) <= 0);
+	BUG_ON(bfqq->ref <= 0);
 
-	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "put_queue: %p %d", bfqq,
-		     atomic_read(&bfqq->ref));
-	if (!atomic_dec_and_test(&bfqq->ref))
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "put_queue: %p %d", bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+	bfqq->ref--;
+	if (bfqq->ref)
 		return;
 
 	BUG_ON(rb_first(&bfqq->sort_list));
 	BUG_ON(bfqq->allocated[READ] + bfqq->allocated[WRITE] != 0);
 	BUG_ON(bfqq->entity.tree);
 	BUG_ON(bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq));
-	BUG_ON(bfqd->in_service_queue == bfqq);
 
 	if (bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq))
 		/*
@@ -2977,7 +3836,7 @@ static void bfq_put_queue(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 		 */
 		hlist_del_init(&bfqq->burst_list_node);
 
-	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "put_queue: %p freed", bfqq);
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "put_queue: %p freed", bfqq);
 
 	kmem_cache_free(bfq_pool, bfqq);
 #ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
@@ -3011,8 +3870,7 @@ static void bfq_exit_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 		bfq_schedule_dispatch(bfqd);
 	}
 
-	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "exit_bfqq: %p, %d", bfqq,
-		     atomic_read(&bfqq->ref));
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "exit_bfqq: %p, %d", bfqq, bfqq->ref);
 
 	bfq_put_cooperator(bfqq);
 
@@ -3021,28 +3879,7 @@ static void bfq_exit_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 
 static void bfq_init_icq(struct io_cq *icq)
 {
-	struct bfq_io_cq *bic = icq_to_bic(icq);
-
-	bic->ttime.last_end_request = jiffies;
-	/*
-	 * A newly created bic indicates that the process has just
-	 * started doing I/O, and is probably mapping into memory its
-	 * executable and libraries: it definitely needs weight raising.
-	 * There is however the possibility that the process performs,
-	 * for a while, I/O close to some other process. EQM intercepts
-	 * this behavior and may merge the queue corresponding to the
-	 * process  with some other queue, BEFORE the weight of the queue
-	 * is raised. Merged queues are not weight-raised (they are assumed
-	 * to belong to processes that benefit only from high throughput).
-	 * If the merge is basically the consequence of an accident, then
-	 * the queue will be split soon and will get back its old weight.
-	 * It is then important to write down somewhere that this queue
-	 * does need weight raising, even if it did not make it to get its
-	 * weight raised before being merged. To this purpose, we overload
-	 * the field raising_time_left and assign 1 to it, to mark the queue
-	 * as needing weight raising.
-	 */
-	bic->wr_time_left = 1;
+	icq_to_bic(icq)->ttime.last_end_request = ktime_get_ns() - (1ULL<<32);
 }
 
 static void bfq_exit_icq(struct io_cq *icq)
@@ -3050,21 +3887,21 @@ static void bfq_exit_icq(struct io_cq *icq)
 	struct bfq_io_cq *bic = icq_to_bic(icq);
 	struct bfq_data *bfqd = bic_to_bfqd(bic);
 
-	if (bic->bfqq[BLK_RW_ASYNC]) {
-		bfq_exit_bfqq(bfqd, bic->bfqq[BLK_RW_ASYNC]);
-		bic->bfqq[BLK_RW_ASYNC] = NULL;
+	if (bic_to_bfqq(bic, false)) {
+		bfq_exit_bfqq(bfqd, bic_to_bfqq(bic, false));
+		bic_set_bfqq(bic, NULL, false);
 	}
 
-	if (bic->bfqq[BLK_RW_SYNC]) {
+	if (bic_to_bfqq(bic, true)) {
 		/*
 		 * If the bic is using a shared queue, put the reference
 		 * taken on the io_context when the bic started using a
 		 * shared bfq_queue.
 		 */
-		if (bfq_bfqq_coop(bic->bfqq[BLK_RW_SYNC]))
+		if (bfq_bfqq_coop(bic_to_bfqq(bic, true)))
 			put_io_context(icq->ioc);
-		bfq_exit_bfqq(bfqd, bic->bfqq[BLK_RW_SYNC]);
-		bic->bfqq[BLK_RW_SYNC] = NULL;
+		bfq_exit_bfqq(bfqd, bic_to_bfqq(bic, true));
+		bic_set_bfqq(bic, NULL, true);
 	}
 }
 
@@ -3072,8 +3909,8 @@ static void bfq_exit_icq(struct io_cq *icq)
  * Update the entity prio values; note that the new values will not
  * be used until the next (re)activation.
  */
-static void
-bfq_set_next_ioprio_data(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
+static void bfq_set_next_ioprio_data(struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+				     struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
 {
 	struct task_struct *tsk = current;
 	int ioprio_class;
@@ -3105,7 +3942,7 @@ bfq_set_next_ioprio_data(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
 		break;
 	}
 
-	if (bfqq->new_ioprio < 0 || bfqq->new_ioprio >= IOPRIO_BE_NR) {
+	if (bfqq->new_ioprio >= IOPRIO_BE_NR) {
 		pr_crit("bfq_set_next_ioprio_data: new_ioprio %d\n",
 			bfqq->new_ioprio);
 		BUG();
@@ -3113,45 +3950,40 @@ bfq_set_next_ioprio_data(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
 
 	bfqq->entity.new_weight = bfq_ioprio_to_weight(bfqq->new_ioprio);
 	bfqq->entity.prio_changed = 1;
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+		     "set_next_ioprio_data: bic_class %d prio %d class %d",
+		     ioprio_class, bfqq->new_ioprio, bfqq->new_ioprio_class);
 }
 
 static void bfq_check_ioprio_change(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bio *bio)
 {
-	struct bfq_data *bfqd;
-	struct bfq_queue *bfqq, *new_bfqq;
+	struct bfq_data *bfqd = bic_to_bfqd(bic);
+	struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
 	unsigned long uninitialized_var(flags);
 	int ioprio = bic->icq.ioc->ioprio;
 
-	bfqd = bfq_get_bfqd_locked(&(bic->icq.q->elevator->elevator_data),
-				   &flags);
 	/*
 	 * This condition may trigger on a newly created bic, be sure to
 	 * drop the lock before returning.
 	 */
 	if (unlikely(!bfqd) || likely(bic->ioprio == ioprio))
-		goto out;
+		return;
 
 	bic->ioprio = ioprio;
 
-	bfqq = bic->bfqq[BLK_RW_ASYNC];
+	bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, false);
 	if (bfqq) {
-		new_bfqq = bfq_get_queue(bfqd, bio, BLK_RW_ASYNC, bic,
-					 GFP_ATOMIC);
-		if (new_bfqq) {
-			bic->bfqq[BLK_RW_ASYNC] = new_bfqq;
-			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
-				     "check_ioprio_change: bfqq %p %d",
-				     bfqq, atomic_read(&bfqq->ref));
-			bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
-		}
+		bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+		bfqq = bfq_get_queue(bfqd, bio, BLK_RW_ASYNC, bic);
+		bic_set_bfqq(bic, bfqq, false);
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+			     "check_ioprio_change: bfqq %p %d",
+			     bfqq, bfqq->ref);
 	}
 
-	bfqq = bic->bfqq[BLK_RW_SYNC];
+	bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, true);
 	if (bfqq)
 		bfq_set_next_ioprio_data(bfqq, bic);
-
-out:
-	bfq_put_bfqd_unlock(bfqd, &flags);
 }
 
 static void bfq_init_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
@@ -3160,8 +3992,9 @@ static void bfq_init_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 	RB_CLEAR_NODE(&bfqq->entity.rb_node);
 	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bfqq->fifo);
 	INIT_HLIST_NODE(&bfqq->burst_list_node);
+	BUG_ON(!hlist_unhashed(&bfqq->burst_list_node));
 
-	atomic_set(&bfqq->ref, 0);
+	bfqq->ref = 0;
 	bfqq->bfqd = bfqd;
 
 	if (bic)
@@ -3171,6 +4004,7 @@ static void bfq_init_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 		if (!bfq_class_idle(bfqq))
 			bfq_mark_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
 		bfq_mark_bfqq_sync(bfqq);
+		bfq_mark_bfqq_just_created(bfqq);
 	} else
 		bfq_clear_bfqq_sync(bfqq);
 	bfq_mark_bfqq_IO_bound(bfqq);
@@ -3180,72 +4014,19 @@ static void bfq_init_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 	bfqq->pid = pid;
 
 	bfqq->wr_coeff = 1;
-	bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = 0;
+	bfqq->last_wr_start_finish = jiffies;
+	bfqq->wr_start_at_switch_to_srt = bfq_smallest_from_now();
+	bfqq->budget_timeout = bfq_smallest_from_now();
+	bfqq->split_time = bfq_smallest_from_now();
+
 	/*
 	 * Set to the value for which bfqq will not be deemed as
 	 * soft rt when it becomes backlogged.
 	 */
-	bfqq->soft_rt_next_start = bfq_infinity_from_now(jiffies);
-}
+	bfqq->soft_rt_next_start = bfq_greatest_from_now();
 
-static struct bfq_queue *bfq_find_alloc_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
-					      struct bio *bio, int is_sync,
-					      struct bfq_io_cq *bic,
-					      gfp_t gfp_mask)
-{
-	struct bfq_group *bfqg;
-	struct bfq_queue *bfqq, *new_bfqq = NULL;
-	struct blkcg *blkcg;
-
-retry:
-	rcu_read_lock();
-
-	blkcg = bio_blkcg(bio);
-	bfqg = bfq_find_alloc_group(bfqd, blkcg);
-	/* bic always exists here */
-	bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, is_sync);
-
-	/*
-	 * Always try a new alloc if we fall back to the OOM bfqq
-	 * originally, since it should just be a temporary situation.
-	 */
-	if (!bfqq || bfqq == &bfqd->oom_bfqq) {
-		bfqq = NULL;
-		if (new_bfqq) {
-			bfqq = new_bfqq;
-			new_bfqq = NULL;
-		} else if (gfpflags_allow_blocking(gfp_mask)) {
-			rcu_read_unlock();
-			spin_unlock_irq(bfqd->queue->queue_lock);
-			new_bfqq = kmem_cache_alloc_node(bfq_pool,
-					gfp_mask | __GFP_ZERO,
-					bfqd->queue->node);
-			spin_lock_irq(bfqd->queue->queue_lock);
-			if (new_bfqq)
-				goto retry;
-		} else {
-			bfqq = kmem_cache_alloc_node(bfq_pool,
-					gfp_mask | __GFP_ZERO,
-					bfqd->queue->node);
-		}
-
-		if (bfqq) {
-			bfq_init_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, bic, current->pid,
-				      is_sync);
-			bfq_init_entity(&bfqq->entity, bfqg);
-			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "allocated");
-		} else {
-			bfqq = &bfqd->oom_bfqq;
-			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "using oom bfqq");
-		}
-	}
-
-	if (new_bfqq)
-		kmem_cache_free(bfq_pool, new_bfqq);
-
-	rcu_read_unlock();
-
-	return bfqq;
+	/* first request is almost certainly seeky */
+	bfqq->seek_history = 1;
 }
 
 static struct bfq_queue **bfq_async_queue_prio(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
@@ -3268,90 +4049,86 @@ static struct bfq_queue **bfq_async_queue_prio(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 }
 
 static struct bfq_queue *bfq_get_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
-				       struct bio *bio, int is_sync,
-				       struct bfq_io_cq *bic, gfp_t gfp_mask)
+				       struct bio *bio, bool is_sync,
+				       struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
 {
 	const int ioprio = IOPRIO_PRIO_DATA(bic->ioprio);
 	const int ioprio_class = IOPRIO_PRIO_CLASS(bic->ioprio);
 	struct bfq_queue **async_bfqq = NULL;
-	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = NULL;
+	struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+	struct bfq_group *bfqg;
+
+	rcu_read_lock();
+
+	bfqg = bfq_find_set_group(bfqd, bio_blkcg(bio));
+	if (!bfqg) {
+		bfqq = &bfqd->oom_bfqq;
+		goto out;
+	}
 
 	if (!is_sync) {
-		struct blkcg *blkcg;
-		struct bfq_group *bfqg;
-
-		rcu_read_lock();
-		blkcg = bio_blkcg(bio);
-		rcu_read_unlock();
-		bfqg = bfq_find_alloc_group(bfqd, blkcg);
 		async_bfqq = bfq_async_queue_prio(bfqd, bfqg, ioprio_class,
 						  ioprio);
 		bfqq = *async_bfqq;
+		if (bfqq)
+			goto out;
 	}
 
-	if (!bfqq)
-		bfqq = bfq_find_alloc_queue(bfqd, bio, is_sync, bic, gfp_mask);
+	bfqq = kmem_cache_alloc_node(bfq_pool, GFP_NOWAIT | __GFP_ZERO,
+				     bfqd->queue->node);
+
+	if (bfqq) {
+		bfq_init_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, bic, current->pid,
+			      is_sync);
+		bfq_init_entity(&bfqq->entity, bfqg);
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "allocated");
+	} else {
+		bfqq = &bfqd->oom_bfqq;
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "using oom bfqq");
+		goto out;
+	}
 
 	/*
 	 * Pin the queue now that it's allocated, scheduler exit will
 	 * prune it.
 	 */
-	if (!is_sync && !(*async_bfqq)) {
-		atomic_inc(&bfqq->ref);
+	if (async_bfqq) {
+		bfqq->ref++;
 		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "get_queue, bfqq not in async: %p, %d",
-			     bfqq, atomic_read(&bfqq->ref));
+			     bfqq, bfqq->ref);
 		*async_bfqq = bfqq;
 	}
 
-	atomic_inc(&bfqq->ref);
-	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "get_queue, at end: %p, %d", bfqq,
-		     atomic_read(&bfqq->ref));
+out:
+	bfqq->ref++;
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "get_queue, at end: %p, %d", bfqq, bfqq->ref);
+	rcu_read_unlock();
 	return bfqq;
 }
 
 static void bfq_update_io_thinktime(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 				    struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
 {
-	unsigned long elapsed = jiffies - bic->ttime.last_end_request;
-	unsigned long ttime = min(elapsed, 2UL * bfqd->bfq_slice_idle);
+	struct bfq_ttime *ttime = &bic->ttime;
+	u64 elapsed = ktime_get_ns() - bic->ttime.last_end_request;
 
-	bic->ttime.ttime_samples = (7*bic->ttime.ttime_samples + 256) / 8;
-	bic->ttime.ttime_total = (7*bic->ttime.ttime_total + 256*ttime) / 8;
-	bic->ttime.ttime_mean = (bic->ttime.ttime_total + 128) /
-				bic->ttime.ttime_samples;
+	elapsed = min_t(u64, elapsed, 2 * bfqd->bfq_slice_idle);
+
+	ttime->ttime_samples = (7*bic->ttime.ttime_samples + 256) / 8;
+	ttime->ttime_total = div_u64(7*ttime->ttime_total + 256*elapsed,  8);
+	ttime->ttime_mean = div64_ul(ttime->ttime_total + 128,
+				     ttime->ttime_samples);
 }
 
-static void bfq_update_io_seektime(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
-				   struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
-				   struct request *rq)
+static void
+bfq_update_io_seektime(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+		       struct request *rq)
 {
-	sector_t sdist;
-	u64 total;
-
-	if (bfqq->last_request_pos < blk_rq_pos(rq))
-		sdist = blk_rq_pos(rq) - bfqq->last_request_pos;
-	else
-		sdist = bfqq->last_request_pos - blk_rq_pos(rq);
-
-	/*
-	 * Don't allow the seek distance to get too large from the
-	 * odd fragment, pagein, etc.
-	 */
-	if (bfqq->seek_samples == 0) /* first request, not really a seek */
-		sdist = 0;
-	else if (bfqq->seek_samples <= 60) /* second & third seek */
-		sdist = min(sdist, (bfqq->seek_mean * 4) + 2*1024*1024);
-	else
-		sdist = min(sdist, (bfqq->seek_mean * 4) + 2*1024*64);
-
-	bfqq->seek_samples = (7*bfqq->seek_samples + 256) / 8;
-	bfqq->seek_total = (7*bfqq->seek_total + (u64)256*sdist) / 8;
-	total = bfqq->seek_total + (bfqq->seek_samples/2);
-	do_div(total, bfqq->seek_samples);
-	bfqq->seek_mean = (sector_t)total;
-
-	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "dist=%llu mean=%llu", (u64)sdist,
-			(u64)bfqq->seek_mean);
+	bfqq->seek_history <<= 1;
+	bfqq->seek_history |=
+		get_sdist(bfqq->last_request_pos, rq) > BFQQ_SEEK_THR &&
+		(!blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue) ||
+		 blk_rq_sectors(rq) < BFQQ_SECT_THR_NONROT);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -3369,7 +4146,8 @@ static void bfq_update_idle_window(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 		return;
 
 	/* Idle window just restored, statistics are meaningless. */
-	if (bfq_bfqq_just_split(bfqq))
+	if (time_is_after_eq_jiffies(bfqq->split_time +
+				     bfqd->bfq_wr_min_idle_time))
 		return;
 
 	enable_idle = bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq);
@@ -3409,22 +4187,13 @@ static void bfq_rq_enqueued(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 
 	bfq_update_io_thinktime(bfqd, bic);
 	bfq_update_io_seektime(bfqd, bfqq, rq);
-	if (!BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq) && bfq_bfqq_constantly_seeky(bfqq)) {
-		bfq_clear_bfqq_constantly_seeky(bfqq);
-		if (!blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue)) {
-			BUG_ON(!bfqd->const_seeky_busy_in_flight_queues);
-			bfqd->const_seeky_busy_in_flight_queues--;
-		}
-	}
 	if (bfqq->entity.service > bfq_max_budget(bfqd) / 8 ||
 	    !BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq))
 		bfq_update_idle_window(bfqd, bfqq, bic);
-	bfq_clear_bfqq_just_split(bfqq);
 
 	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
-		     "rq_enqueued: idle_window=%d (seeky %d, mean %llu)",
-		     bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq), BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq),
-		     (unsigned long long) bfqq->seek_mean);
+		     "rq_enqueued: idle_window=%d (seeky %d)",
+		     bfq_bfqq_idle_window(bfqq), BFQQ_SEEKY(bfqq));
 
 	bfqq->last_request_pos = blk_rq_pos(rq) + blk_rq_sectors(rq);
 
@@ -3438,14 +4207,15 @@ static void bfq_rq_enqueued(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 		 * is small and the queue is not to be expired, then
 		 * just exit.
 		 *
-		 * In this way, if the disk is being idled to wait for
-		 * a new request from the in-service queue, we avoid
-		 * unplugging the device and committing the disk to serve
-		 * just a small request. On the contrary, we wait for
-		 * the block layer to decide when to unplug the device:
-		 * hopefully, new requests will be merged to this one
-		 * quickly, then the device will be unplugged and
-		 * larger requests will be dispatched.
+		 * In this way, if the device is being idled to wait
+		 * for a new request from the in-service queue, we
+		 * avoid unplugging the device and committing the
+		 * device to serve just a small request. On the
+		 * contrary, we wait for the block layer to decide
+		 * when to unplug the device: hopefully, new requests
+		 * will be merged to this one quickly, then the device
+		 * will be unplugged and larger requests will be
+		 * dispatched.
 		 */
 		if (small_req && !budget_timeout)
 			return;
@@ -3457,10 +4227,8 @@ static void bfq_rq_enqueued(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 		 * timer.
 		 */
 		bfq_clear_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq);
-		del_timer(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
-#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+		hrtimer_try_to_cancel(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
 		bfqg_stats_update_idle_time(bfqq_group(bfqq));
-#endif
 
 		/*
 		 * The queue is not empty, because a new request just
@@ -3504,28 +4272,20 @@ static void bfq_insert_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
 			 */
 			new_bfqq->allocated[rq_data_dir(rq)]++;
 			bfqq->allocated[rq_data_dir(rq)]--;
-			atomic_inc(&new_bfqq->ref);
+			new_bfqq->ref++;
+			bfq_clear_bfqq_just_created(bfqq);
 			bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
 			if (bic_to_bfqq(RQ_BIC(rq), 1) == bfqq)
 				bfq_merge_bfqqs(bfqd, RQ_BIC(rq),
 						bfqq, new_bfqq);
 			rq->elv.priv[1] = new_bfqq;
 			bfqq = new_bfqq;
-		} else
-			bfq_bfqq_increase_failed_cooperations(bfqq);
+		}
 	}
 
 	bfq_add_request(rq);
 
-	/*
-	 * Here a newly-created bfq_queue has already started a weight-raising
-	 * period: clear raising_time_left to prevent bfq_bfqq_save_state()
-	 * from assigning it a full weight-raising period. See the detailed
-	 * comments about this field in bfq_init_icq().
-	 */
-	if (bfqq->bic)
-		bfqq->bic->wr_time_left = 0;
-	rq->fifo_time = jiffies + bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[rq_is_sync(rq)];
+	rq->fifo_time = ktime_get_ns() + bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[rq_is_sync(rq)];
 	list_add_tail(&rq->queuelist, &bfqq->fifo);
 
 	bfq_rq_enqueued(bfqd, bfqq, rq);
@@ -3533,8 +4293,8 @@ static void bfq_insert_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
 
 static void bfq_update_hw_tag(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 {
-	bfqd->max_rq_in_driver = max(bfqd->max_rq_in_driver,
-				     bfqd->rq_in_driver);
+	bfqd->max_rq_in_driver = max_t(int, bfqd->max_rq_in_driver,
+				       bfqd->rq_in_driver);
 
 	if (bfqd->hw_tag == 1)
 		return;
@@ -3560,48 +4320,85 @@ static void bfq_completed_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
 {
 	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = RQ_BFQQ(rq);
 	struct bfq_data *bfqd = bfqq->bfqd;
-	bool sync = bfq_bfqq_sync(bfqq);
+	u64 now_ns;
+	u32 delta_us;
 
-	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "completed one req with %u sects left (%d)",
-		     blk_rq_sectors(rq), sync);
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "completed one req with %u sects left",
+		     blk_rq_sectors(rq));
 
+	assert_spin_locked(bfqd->queue->queue_lock);
 	bfq_update_hw_tag(bfqd);
 
 	BUG_ON(!bfqd->rq_in_driver);
 	BUG_ON(!bfqq->dispatched);
 	bfqd->rq_in_driver--;
 	bfqq->dispatched--;
-#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 	bfqg_stats_update_completion(bfqq_group(bfqq),
 				     rq_start_time_ns(rq),
-				     rq_io_start_time_ns(rq), rq->cmd_flags);
-#endif
+				     rq_io_start_time_ns(rq), req_op(rq),
+				     rq->cmd_flags);
 
 	if (!bfqq->dispatched && !bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq)) {
+		BUG_ON(!RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list));
+		/*
+		 * Set budget_timeout (which we overload to store the
+		 * time at which the queue remains with no backlog and
+		 * no outstanding request; used by the weight-raising
+		 * mechanism).
+		 */
+		bfqq->budget_timeout = jiffies;
+
 		bfq_weights_tree_remove(bfqd, &bfqq->entity,
 					&bfqd->queue_weights_tree);
-		if (!blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue)) {
-			BUG_ON(!bfqd->busy_in_flight_queues);
-			bfqd->busy_in_flight_queues--;
-			if (bfq_bfqq_constantly_seeky(bfqq)) {
-				BUG_ON(!bfqd->
-					const_seeky_busy_in_flight_queues);
-				bfqd->const_seeky_busy_in_flight_queues--;
-			}
-		}
 	}
 
-	if (sync) {
-		bfqd->sync_flight--;
-		RQ_BIC(rq)->ttime.last_end_request = jiffies;
-	}
+	now_ns = ktime_get_ns();
+
+	RQ_BIC(rq)->ttime.last_end_request = now_ns;
+
+	/*
+	 * Using us instead of ns, to get a reasonable precision in
+	 * computing rate in next check.
+	 */
+	delta_us = div_u64(now_ns - bfqd->last_completion, NSEC_PER_USEC);
+
+	bfq_log(bfqd, "rq_completed: delta %uus/%luus max_size %u rate %llu/%llu",
+		delta_us, BFQ_MIN_TT/NSEC_PER_USEC, bfqd->last_rq_max_size,
+		(USEC_PER_SEC*
+		(u64)((bfqd->last_rq_max_size<<BFQ_RATE_SHIFT)/delta_us))
+			>>BFQ_RATE_SHIFT,
+		(USEC_PER_SEC*(u64)(1UL<<(BFQ_RATE_SHIFT-10)))>>BFQ_RATE_SHIFT);
+
+	/*
+	 * If the request took rather long to complete, and, according
+	 * to the maximum request size recorded, this completion latency
+	 * implies that the request was certainly served at a very low
+	 * rate (less than 1M sectors/sec), then the whole observation
+	 * interval that lasts up to this time instant cannot be a
+	 * valid time interval for computing a new peak rate.  Invoke
+	 * bfq_update_rate_reset to have the following three steps
+	 * taken:
+	 * - close the observation interval at the last (previous)
+	 *   request dispatch or completion
+	 * - compute rate, if possible, for that observation interval
+	 * - reset to zero samples, which will trigger a proper
+	 *   re-initialization of the observation interval on next
+	 *   dispatch
+	 */
+	if (delta_us > BFQ_MIN_TT/NSEC_PER_USEC &&
+	   (bfqd->last_rq_max_size<<BFQ_RATE_SHIFT)/delta_us <
+			1UL<<(BFQ_RATE_SHIFT - 10))
+		bfq_update_rate_reset(bfqd, NULL);
+	bfqd->last_completion = now_ns;
 
 	/*
-	 * If we are waiting to discover whether the request pattern of the
-	 * task associated with the queue is actually isochronous, and
-	 * both requisites for this condition to hold are satisfied, then
-	 * compute soft_rt_next_start (see the comments to the function
-	 * bfq_bfqq_softrt_next_start()).
+	 * If we are waiting to discover whether the request pattern
+	 * of the task associated with the queue is actually
+	 * isochronous, and both requisites for this condition to hold
+	 * are now satisfied, then compute soft_rt_next_start (see the
+	 * comments on the function bfq_bfqq_softrt_next_start()). We
+	 * schedule this delayed check when bfqq expires, if it still
+	 * has in-flight requests.
 	 */
 	if (bfq_bfqq_softrt_update(bfqq) && bfqq->dispatched == 0 &&
 	    RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list))
@@ -3613,10 +4410,7 @@ static void bfq_completed_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
 	 * or if we want to idle in case it has no pending requests.
 	 */
 	if (bfqd->in_service_queue == bfqq) {
-		if (bfq_bfqq_budget_new(bfqq))
-			bfq_set_budget_timeout(bfqd);
-
-		if (bfq_bfqq_must_idle(bfqq)) {
+		if (bfqq->dispatched == 0 && bfq_bfqq_must_idle(bfqq)) {
 			bfq_arm_slice_timer(bfqd);
 			goto out;
 		} else if (bfq_may_expire_for_budg_timeout(bfqq))
@@ -3646,7 +4440,7 @@ static int __bfq_may_queue(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 	return ELV_MQUEUE_MAY;
 }
 
-static int bfq_may_queue(struct request_queue *q, int rw)
+static int bfq_may_queue(struct request_queue *q, int op, int op_flags)
 {
 	struct bfq_data *bfqd = q->elevator->elevator_data;
 	struct task_struct *tsk = current;
@@ -3663,7 +4457,7 @@ static int bfq_may_queue(struct request_queue *q, int rw)
 	if (!bic)
 		return ELV_MQUEUE_MAY;
 
-	bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, rw_is_sync(rw));
+	bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, rw_is_sync(op, op_flags));
 	if (bfqq)
 		return __bfq_may_queue(bfqq);
 
@@ -3687,14 +4481,14 @@ static void bfq_put_request(struct request *rq)
 		rq->elv.priv[1] = NULL;
 
 		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "put_request %p, %d",
-			     bfqq, atomic_read(&bfqq->ref));
+			     bfqq, bfqq->ref);
 		bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
 	}
 }
 
 /*
  * Returns NULL if a new bfqq should be allocated, or the old bfqq if this
- * was the last process referring to said bfqq.
+ * was the last process referring to that bfqq.
  */
 static struct bfq_queue *
 bfq_split_bfqq(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
@@ -3732,11 +4526,8 @@ static int bfq_set_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 	unsigned long flags;
 	bool split = false;
 
-	might_sleep_if(gfpflags_allow_blocking(gfp_mask));
-
-	bfq_check_ioprio_change(bic, bio);
-
 	spin_lock_irqsave(q->queue_lock, flags);
+	bfq_check_ioprio_change(bic, bio);
 
 	if (!bic)
 		goto queue_fail;
@@ -3746,23 +4537,47 @@ static int bfq_set_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 new_queue:
 	bfqq = bic_to_bfqq(bic, is_sync);
 	if (!bfqq || bfqq == &bfqd->oom_bfqq) {
-		bfqq = bfq_get_queue(bfqd, bio, is_sync, bic, gfp_mask);
+		if (bfqq)
+			bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
+		bfqq = bfq_get_queue(bfqd, bio, is_sync, bic);
+		BUG_ON(!hlist_unhashed(&bfqq->burst_list_node));
+
 		bic_set_bfqq(bic, bfqq, is_sync);
 		if (split && is_sync) {
+			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+				     "set_request: was_in_list %d "
+				     "was_in_large_burst %d "
+				     "large burst in progress %d",
+				     bic->was_in_burst_list,
+				     bic->saved_in_large_burst,
+				     bfqd->large_burst);
+
 			if ((bic->was_in_burst_list && bfqd->large_burst) ||
-			    bic->saved_in_large_burst)
+			    bic->saved_in_large_burst) {
+				bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+					     "set_request: marking in "
+					     "large burst");
 				bfq_mark_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
-			else {
+			} else {
+				bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+					     "set_request: clearing in "
+					     "large burst");
 				bfq_clear_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq);
 				if (bic->was_in_burst_list)
 					hlist_add_head(&bfqq->burst_list_node,
 						       &bfqd->burst_list);
 			}
+			bfqq->split_time = jiffies;
 		}
 	} else {
 		/* If the queue was seeky for too long, break it apart. */
 		if (bfq_bfqq_coop(bfqq) && bfq_bfqq_split_coop(bfqq)) {
 			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "breaking apart bfqq");
+
+			/* Update bic before losing reference to bfqq */
+			if (bfq_bfqq_in_large_burst(bfqq))
+				bic->saved_in_large_burst = true;
+
 			bfqq = bfq_split_bfqq(bic, bfqq);
 			split = true;
 			if (!bfqq)
@@ -3771,9 +4586,8 @@ static int bfq_set_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 	}
 
 	bfqq->allocated[rw]++;
-	atomic_inc(&bfqq->ref);
-	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "set_request: bfqq %p, %d", bfqq,
-		     atomic_read(&bfqq->ref));
+	bfqq->ref++;
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "set_request: bfqq %p, %d", bfqq, bfqq->ref);
 
 	rq->elv.priv[0] = bic;
 	rq->elv.priv[1] = bfqq;
@@ -3788,7 +4602,6 @@ static int bfq_set_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 	if (likely(bfqq != &bfqd->oom_bfqq) && bfqq_process_refs(bfqq) == 1) {
 		bfqq->bic = bic;
 		if (split) {
-			bfq_mark_bfqq_just_split(bfqq);
 			/*
 			 * If the queue has just been split from a shared
 			 * queue, restore the idle window and the possible
@@ -3798,6 +4611,9 @@ static int bfq_set_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq,
 		}
 	}
 
+	if (unlikely(bfq_bfqq_just_created(bfqq)))
+		bfq_handle_burst(bfqd, bfqq);
+
 	spin_unlock_irqrestore(q->queue_lock, flags);
 
 	return 0;
@@ -3824,9 +4640,10 @@ static void bfq_kick_queue(struct work_struct *work)
  * Handler of the expiration of the timer running if the in-service queue
  * is idling inside its time slice.
  */
-static void bfq_idle_slice_timer(unsigned long data)
+static enum hrtimer_restart bfq_idle_slice_timer(struct hrtimer *timer)
 {
-	struct bfq_data *bfqd = (struct bfq_data *)data;
+	struct bfq_data *bfqd = container_of(timer, struct bfq_data,
+					     idle_slice_timer);
 	struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
 	unsigned long flags;
 	enum bfqq_expiration reason;
@@ -3844,6 +4661,8 @@ static void bfq_idle_slice_timer(unsigned long data)
 	 */
 	if (bfqq) {
 		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "slice_timer expired");
+		bfq_clear_bfqq_wait_request(bfqq);
+
 		if (bfq_bfqq_budget_timeout(bfqq))
 			/*
 			 * Also here the queue can be safely expired
@@ -3869,14 +4688,16 @@ static void bfq_idle_slice_timer(unsigned long data)
 	bfq_schedule_dispatch(bfqd);
 
 	spin_unlock_irqrestore(bfqd->queue->queue_lock, flags);
+	return HRTIMER_NORESTART;
 }
 
 static void bfq_shutdown_timer_wq(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 {
-	del_timer_sync(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
+	hrtimer_cancel(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
 	cancel_work_sync(&bfqd->unplug_work);
 }
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 static void __bfq_put_async_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 					struct bfq_queue **bfqq_ptr)
 {
@@ -3885,9 +4706,9 @@ static void __bfq_put_async_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 
 	bfq_log(bfqd, "put_async_bfqq: %p", bfqq);
 	if (bfqq) {
-		bfq_bfqq_move(bfqd, bfqq, &bfqq->entity, root_group);
+		bfq_bfqq_move(bfqd, bfqq, root_group);
 		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, "put_async_bfqq: putting %p, %d",
-			     bfqq, atomic_read(&bfqq->ref));
+			     bfqq, bfqq->ref);
 		bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
 		*bfqq_ptr = NULL;
 	}
@@ -3909,6 +4730,7 @@ static void bfq_put_async_queues(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_group *bfqg)
 
 	__bfq_put_async_bfqq(bfqd, &bfqg->async_idle_bfqq);
 }
+#endif
 
 static void bfq_exit_queue(struct elevator_queue *e)
 {
@@ -3922,15 +4744,13 @@ static void bfq_exit_queue(struct elevator_queue *e)
 
 	BUG_ON(bfqd->in_service_queue);
 	list_for_each_entry_safe(bfqq, n, &bfqd->idle_list, bfqq_list)
-		bfq_deactivate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, 0);
+		bfq_deactivate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, false, false);
 
 	spin_unlock_irq(q->queue_lock);
 
 	bfq_shutdown_timer_wq(bfqd);
 
-	synchronize_rcu();
-
-	BUG_ON(timer_pending(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer));
+	BUG_ON(hrtimer_active(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer));
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 	blkcg_deactivate_policy(q, &blkcg_policy_bfq);
@@ -3954,6 +4774,7 @@ static void bfq_init_root_group(struct bfq_group *root_group,
 	root_group->rq_pos_tree = RB_ROOT;
 	for (i = 0; i < BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES; i++)
 		root_group->sched_data.service_tree[i] = BFQ_SERVICE_TREE_INIT;
+	root_group->sched_data.bfq_class_idle_last_service = jiffies;
 }
 
 static int bfq_init_queue(struct request_queue *q, struct elevator_type *e)
@@ -3978,11 +4799,14 @@ static int bfq_init_queue(struct request_queue *q, struct elevator_type *e)
 	 * will not attempt to free it.
 	 */
 	bfq_init_bfqq(bfqd, &bfqd->oom_bfqq, NULL, 1, 0);
-	atomic_inc(&bfqd->oom_bfqq.ref);
+	bfqd->oom_bfqq.ref++;
 	bfqd->oom_bfqq.new_ioprio = BFQ_DEFAULT_QUEUE_IOPRIO;
 	bfqd->oom_bfqq.new_ioprio_class = IOPRIO_CLASS_BE;
 	bfqd->oom_bfqq.entity.new_weight =
 		bfq_ioprio_to_weight(bfqd->oom_bfqq.new_ioprio);
+
+	/* oom_bfqq does not participate to bursts */
+	bfq_clear_bfqq_just_created(&bfqd->oom_bfqq);
 	/*
 	 * Trigger weight initialization, according to ioprio, at the
 	 * oom_bfqq's first activation. The oom_bfqq's ioprio and ioprio
@@ -4001,13 +4825,10 @@ static int bfq_init_queue(struct request_queue *q, struct elevator_type *e)
 		goto out_free;
 	bfq_init_root_group(bfqd->root_group, bfqd);
 	bfq_init_entity(&bfqd->oom_bfqq.entity, bfqd->root_group);
-#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
-	bfqd->active_numerous_groups = 0;
-#endif
 
-	init_timer(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
+	hrtimer_init(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer, CLOCK_MONOTONIC,
+		     HRTIMER_MODE_REL);
 	bfqd->idle_slice_timer.function = bfq_idle_slice_timer;
-	bfqd->idle_slice_timer.data = (unsigned long)bfqd;
 
 	bfqd->queue_weights_tree = RB_ROOT;
 	bfqd->group_weights_tree = RB_ROOT;
@@ -4027,21 +4848,19 @@ static int bfq_init_queue(struct request_queue *q, struct elevator_type *e)
 	bfqd->bfq_back_max = bfq_back_max;
 	bfqd->bfq_back_penalty = bfq_back_penalty;
 	bfqd->bfq_slice_idle = bfq_slice_idle;
-	bfqd->bfq_class_idle_last_service = 0;
-	bfqd->bfq_max_budget_async_rq = bfq_max_budget_async_rq;
-	bfqd->bfq_timeout[BLK_RW_ASYNC] = bfq_timeout_async;
-	bfqd->bfq_timeout[BLK_RW_SYNC] = bfq_timeout_sync;
+	bfqd->bfq_timeout = bfq_timeout;
 
-	bfqd->bfq_coop_thresh = 2;
-	bfqd->bfq_failed_cooperations = 7000;
 	bfqd->bfq_requests_within_timer = 120;
 
-	bfqd->bfq_large_burst_thresh = 11;
-	bfqd->bfq_burst_interval = msecs_to_jiffies(500);
+	bfqd->bfq_large_burst_thresh = 8;
+	bfqd->bfq_burst_interval = msecs_to_jiffies(180);
 
 	bfqd->low_latency = true;
 
-	bfqd->bfq_wr_coeff = 20;
+	/*
+	 * Trade-off between responsiveness and fairness.
+	 */
+	bfqd->bfq_wr_coeff = 30;
 	bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time = msecs_to_jiffies(300);
 	bfqd->bfq_wr_max_time = 0;
 	bfqd->bfq_wr_min_idle_time = msecs_to_jiffies(2000);
@@ -4053,16 +4872,15 @@ static int bfq_init_queue(struct request_queue *q, struct elevator_type *e)
 					      * video.
 					      */
 	bfqd->wr_busy_queues = 0;
-	bfqd->busy_in_flight_queues = 0;
-	bfqd->const_seeky_busy_in_flight_queues = 0;
 
 	/*
-	 * Begin by assuming, optimistically, that the device peak rate is
-	 * equal to the highest reference rate.
+	 * Begin by assuming, optimistically, that the device is a
+	 * high-speed one, and that its peak rate is equal to 2/3 of
+	 * the highest reference rate.
 	 */
 	bfqd->RT_prod = R_fast[blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue)] *
 			T_fast[blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue)];
-	bfqd->peak_rate = R_fast[blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue)];
+	bfqd->peak_rate = R_fast[blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue)] * 2 / 3;
 	bfqd->device_speed = BFQ_BFQD_FAST;
 
 	return 0;
@@ -4088,7 +4906,7 @@ static int __init bfq_slab_setup(void)
 
 static ssize_t bfq_var_show(unsigned int var, char *page)
 {
-	return sprintf(page, "%d\n", var);
+	return sprintf(page, "%u\n", var);
 }
 
 static ssize_t bfq_var_store(unsigned long *var, const char *page,
@@ -4159,21 +4977,21 @@ static ssize_t bfq_weights_show(struct elevator_queue *e, char *page)
 static ssize_t __FUNC(struct elevator_queue *e, char *page)		\
 {									\
 	struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data;			\
-	unsigned int __data = __VAR;					\
-	if (__CONV)							\
+	u64 __data = __VAR;						\
+	if (__CONV == 1)						\
 		__data = jiffies_to_msecs(__data);			\
+	else if (__CONV == 2)						\
+		__data = div_u64(__data, NSEC_PER_MSEC);		\
 	return bfq_var_show(__data, (page));				\
 }
-SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_fifo_expire_sync_show, bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[1], 1);
-SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_fifo_expire_async_show, bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[0], 1);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_fifo_expire_sync_show, bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[1], 2);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_fifo_expire_async_show, bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[0], 2);
 SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_back_seek_max_show, bfqd->bfq_back_max, 0);
 SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_back_seek_penalty_show, bfqd->bfq_back_penalty, 0);
-SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_slice_idle_show, bfqd->bfq_slice_idle, 1);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_slice_idle_show, bfqd->bfq_slice_idle, 2);
 SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_max_budget_show, bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget, 0);
-SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_max_budget_async_rq_show,
-	      bfqd->bfq_max_budget_async_rq, 0);
-SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_timeout_sync_show, bfqd->bfq_timeout[BLK_RW_SYNC], 1);
-SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_timeout_async_show, bfqd->bfq_timeout[BLK_RW_ASYNC], 1);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_timeout_sync_show, bfqd->bfq_timeout, 1);
+SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_strict_guarantees_show, bfqd->strict_guarantees, 0);
 SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_low_latency_show, bfqd->low_latency, 0);
 SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_wr_coeff_show, bfqd->bfq_wr_coeff, 0);
 SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_wr_rt_max_time_show, bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time, 1);
@@ -4183,6 +5001,17 @@ SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_wr_min_inter_arr_async_show, bfqd->bfq_wr_min_inter_arr_async,
 SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_wr_max_softrt_rate_show, bfqd->bfq_wr_max_softrt_rate, 0);
 #undef SHOW_FUNCTION
 
+#define USEC_SHOW_FUNCTION(__FUNC, __VAR)				\
+static ssize_t __FUNC(struct elevator_queue *e, char *page)		\
+{									\
+	struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data;			\
+	u64 __data = __VAR;						\
+	__data = div_u64(__data, NSEC_PER_USEC);			\
+	return bfq_var_show(__data, (page));				\
+}
+USEC_SHOW_FUNCTION(bfq_slice_idle_us_show, bfqd->bfq_slice_idle);
+#undef USEC_SHOW_FUNCTION
+
 #define STORE_FUNCTION(__FUNC, __PTR, MIN, MAX, __CONV)			\
 static ssize_t								\
 __FUNC(struct elevator_queue *e, const char *page, size_t count)	\
@@ -4194,24 +5023,22 @@ __FUNC(struct elevator_queue *e, const char *page, size_t count)	\
 		__data = (MIN);						\
 	else if (__data > (MAX))					\
 		__data = (MAX);						\
-	if (__CONV)							\
+	if (__CONV == 1)						\
 		*(__PTR) = msecs_to_jiffies(__data);			\
+	else if (__CONV == 2)						\
+		*(__PTR) = (u64)__data * NSEC_PER_MSEC;			\
 	else								\
 		*(__PTR) = __data;					\
 	return ret;							\
 }
 STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_fifo_expire_sync_store, &bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[1], 1,
-		INT_MAX, 1);
+		INT_MAX, 2);
 STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_fifo_expire_async_store, &bfqd->bfq_fifo_expire[0], 1,
-		INT_MAX, 1);
+		INT_MAX, 2);
 STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_back_seek_max_store, &bfqd->bfq_back_max, 0, INT_MAX, 0);
 STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_back_seek_penalty_store, &bfqd->bfq_back_penalty, 1,
 		INT_MAX, 0);
-STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_slice_idle_store, &bfqd->bfq_slice_idle, 0, INT_MAX, 1);
-STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_max_budget_async_rq_store, &bfqd->bfq_max_budget_async_rq,
-		1, INT_MAX, 0);
-STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_timeout_async_store, &bfqd->bfq_timeout[BLK_RW_ASYNC], 0,
-		INT_MAX, 1);
+STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_slice_idle_store, &bfqd->bfq_slice_idle, 0, INT_MAX, 2);
 STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_wr_coeff_store, &bfqd->bfq_wr_coeff, 1, INT_MAX, 0);
 STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_wr_max_time_store, &bfqd->bfq_wr_max_time, 0, INT_MAX, 1);
 STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_wr_rt_max_time_store, &bfqd->bfq_wr_rt_max_time, 0, INT_MAX,
@@ -4224,6 +5051,23 @@ STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_wr_max_softrt_rate_store, &bfqd->bfq_wr_max_softrt_rate, 0,
 		INT_MAX, 0);
 #undef STORE_FUNCTION
 
+#define USEC_STORE_FUNCTION(__FUNC, __PTR, MIN, MAX)			\
+static ssize_t __FUNC(struct elevator_queue *e, const char *page, size_t count)\
+{									\
+	struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data;			\
+	unsigned long uninitialized_var(__data);			\
+	int ret = bfq_var_store(&__data, (page), count);		\
+	if (__data < (MIN))						\
+		__data = (MIN);						\
+	else if (__data > (MAX))					\
+		__data = (MAX);						\
+	*(__PTR) = (u64)__data * NSEC_PER_USEC;				\
+	return ret;							\
+}
+USEC_STORE_FUNCTION(bfq_slice_idle_us_store, &bfqd->bfq_slice_idle, 0,
+		    UINT_MAX);
+#undef USEC_STORE_FUNCTION
+
 /* do nothing for the moment */
 static ssize_t bfq_weights_store(struct elevator_queue *e,
 				    const char *page, size_t count)
@@ -4231,16 +5075,6 @@ static ssize_t bfq_weights_store(struct elevator_queue *e,
 	return count;
 }
 
-static unsigned long bfq_estimated_max_budget(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
-{
-	u64 timeout = jiffies_to_msecs(bfqd->bfq_timeout[BLK_RW_SYNC]);
-
-	if (bfqd->peak_rate_samples >= BFQ_PEAK_RATE_SAMPLES)
-		return bfq_calc_max_budget(bfqd->peak_rate, timeout);
-	else
-		return bfq_default_max_budget;
-}
-
 static ssize_t bfq_max_budget_store(struct elevator_queue *e,
 				    const char *page, size_t count)
 {
@@ -4249,7 +5083,7 @@ static ssize_t bfq_max_budget_store(struct elevator_queue *e,
 	int ret = bfq_var_store(&__data, (page), count);
 
 	if (__data == 0)
-		bfqd->bfq_max_budget = bfq_estimated_max_budget(bfqd);
+		bfqd->bfq_max_budget = bfq_calc_max_budget(bfqd);
 	else {
 		if (__data > INT_MAX)
 			__data = INT_MAX;
@@ -4261,6 +5095,10 @@ static ssize_t bfq_max_budget_store(struct elevator_queue *e,
 	return ret;
 }
 
+/*
+ * Leaving this name to preserve name compatibility with cfq
+ * parameters, but this timeout is used for both sync and async.
+ */
 static ssize_t bfq_timeout_sync_store(struct elevator_queue *e,
 				      const char *page, size_t count)
 {
@@ -4273,9 +5111,27 @@ static ssize_t bfq_timeout_sync_store(struct elevator_queue *e,
 	else if (__data > INT_MAX)
 		__data = INT_MAX;
 
-	bfqd->bfq_timeout[BLK_RW_SYNC] = msecs_to_jiffies(__data);
+	bfqd->bfq_timeout = msecs_to_jiffies(__data);
 	if (bfqd->bfq_user_max_budget == 0)
-		bfqd->bfq_max_budget = bfq_estimated_max_budget(bfqd);
+		bfqd->bfq_max_budget = bfq_calc_max_budget(bfqd);
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
+static ssize_t bfq_strict_guarantees_store(struct elevator_queue *e,
+				     const char *page, size_t count)
+{
+	struct bfq_data *bfqd = e->elevator_data;
+	unsigned long uninitialized_var(__data);
+	int ret = bfq_var_store(&__data, (page), count);
+
+	if (__data > 1)
+		__data = 1;
+	if (!bfqd->strict_guarantees && __data == 1
+	    && bfqd->bfq_slice_idle < 8 * NSEC_PER_MSEC)
+		bfqd->bfq_slice_idle = 8 * NSEC_PER_MSEC;
+
+	bfqd->strict_guarantees = __data;
 
 	return ret;
 }
@@ -4305,10 +5161,10 @@ static struct elv_fs_entry bfq_attrs[] = {
 	BFQ_ATTR(back_seek_max),
 	BFQ_ATTR(back_seek_penalty),
 	BFQ_ATTR(slice_idle),
+	BFQ_ATTR(slice_idle_us),
 	BFQ_ATTR(max_budget),
-	BFQ_ATTR(max_budget_async_rq),
 	BFQ_ATTR(timeout_sync),
-	BFQ_ATTR(timeout_async),
+	BFQ_ATTR(strict_guarantees),
 	BFQ_ATTR(low_latency),
 	BFQ_ATTR(wr_coeff),
 	BFQ_ATTR(wr_max_time),
@@ -4328,7 +5184,8 @@ static struct elevator_type iosched_bfq = {
 #ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 		.elevator_bio_merged_fn =	bfq_bio_merged,
 #endif
-		.elevator_allow_merge_fn =	bfq_allow_merge,
+		.elevator_allow_bio_merge_fn =	bfq_allow_bio_merge,
+		.elevator_allow_rq_merge_fn =	bfq_allow_rq_merge,
 		.elevator_dispatch_fn =		bfq_dispatch_requests,
 		.elevator_add_req_fn =		bfq_insert_request,
 		.elevator_activate_req_fn =	bfq_activate_request,
@@ -4351,18 +5208,28 @@ static struct elevator_type iosched_bfq = {
 	.elevator_owner =	THIS_MODULE,
 };
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+static struct blkcg_policy blkcg_policy_bfq = {
+	.dfl_cftypes		= bfq_blkg_files,
+	.legacy_cftypes		= bfq_blkcg_legacy_files,
+
+	.cpd_alloc_fn		= bfq_cpd_alloc,
+	.cpd_init_fn		= bfq_cpd_init,
+	.cpd_bind_fn	        = bfq_cpd_init,
+	.cpd_free_fn		= bfq_cpd_free,
+
+	.pd_alloc_fn		= bfq_pd_alloc,
+	.pd_init_fn		= bfq_pd_init,
+	.pd_offline_fn		= bfq_pd_offline,
+	.pd_free_fn		= bfq_pd_free,
+	.pd_reset_stats_fn	= bfq_pd_reset_stats,
+};
+#endif
+
 static int __init bfq_init(void)
 {
 	int ret;
-
-	/*
-	 * Can be 0 on HZ < 1000 setups.
-	 */
-	if (bfq_slice_idle == 0)
-		bfq_slice_idle = 1;
-
-	if (bfq_timeout_async == 0)
-		bfq_timeout_async = 1;
+	char msg[60] = "BFQ I/O-scheduler: v8r7";
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 	ret = blkcg_policy_register(&blkcg_policy_bfq);
@@ -4375,27 +5242,46 @@ static int __init bfq_init(void)
 		goto err_pol_unreg;
 
 	/*
-	 * Times to load large popular applications for the typical systems
-	 * installed on the reference devices (see the comments before the
-	 * definitions of the two arrays).
+	 * Times to load large popular applications for the typical
+	 * systems installed on the reference devices (see the
+	 * comments before the definitions of the next two
+	 * arrays). Actually, we use slightly slower values, as the
+	 * estimated peak rate tends to be smaller than the actual
+	 * peak rate.  The reason for this last fact is that estimates
+	 * are computed over much shorter time intervals than the long
+	 * intervals typically used for benchmarking. Why? First, to
+	 * adapt more quickly to variations. Second, because an I/O
+	 * scheduler cannot rely on a peak-rate-evaluation workload to
+	 * be run for a long time.
 	 */
-	T_slow[0] = msecs_to_jiffies(2600);
-	T_slow[1] = msecs_to_jiffies(1000);
-	T_fast[0] = msecs_to_jiffies(5500);
-	T_fast[1] = msecs_to_jiffies(2000);
+	T_slow[0] = msecs_to_jiffies(3500); /* actually 4 sec */
+	T_slow[1] = msecs_to_jiffies(1000); /* actually 1.5 sec */
+	T_fast[0] = msecs_to_jiffies(7000); /* actually 8 sec */
+	T_fast[1] = msecs_to_jiffies(2500); /* actually 3 sec */
 
 	/*
-	 * Thresholds that determine the switch between speed classes (see
-	 * the comments before the definition of the array).
+	 * Thresholds that determine the switch between speed classes
+	 * (see the comments before the definition of the array
+	 * device_speed_thresh). These thresholds are biased towards
+	 * transitions to the fast class. This is safer than the
+	 * opposite bias. In fact, a wrong transition to the slow
+	 * class results in short weight-raising periods, because the
+	 * speed of the device then tends to be higher that the
+	 * reference peak rate. On the opposite end, a wrong
+	 * transition to the fast class tends to increase
+	 * weight-raising periods, because of the opposite reason.
 	 */
-	device_speed_thresh[0] = (R_fast[0] + R_slow[0]) / 2;
-	device_speed_thresh[1] = (R_fast[1] + R_slow[1]) / 2;
+	device_speed_thresh[0] = (4 * R_slow[0]) / 3;
+	device_speed_thresh[1] = (4 * R_slow[1]) / 3;
 
 	ret = elv_register(&iosched_bfq);
 	if (ret)
 		goto err_pol_unreg;
 
-	pr_info("BFQ I/O-scheduler: v7r11");
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+	strcat(msg, " (with cgroups support)");
+#endif
+	pr_info("%s", msg);
 
 	return 0;
 
diff --git a/block/bfq-sched.c b/block/bfq-sched.c
index a5ed6948471a..797bce75db01 100644
--- a/block/bfq-sched.c
+++ b/block/bfq-sched.c
@@ -7,28 +7,166 @@
  * Copyright (C) 2008 Fabio Checconi <fabio@gandalf.sssup.it>
  *		      Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
  *
- * Copyright (C) 2010 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
+ * Copyright (C) 2015 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2016 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org>
  */
 
+static struct bfq_group *bfqq_group(struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
+
+/**
+ * bfq_gt - compare two timestamps.
+ * @a: first ts.
+ * @b: second ts.
+ *
+ * Return @a > @b, dealing with wrapping correctly.
+ */
+static int bfq_gt(u64 a, u64 b)
+{
+	return (s64)(a - b) > 0;
+}
+
+static struct bfq_entity *bfq_root_active_entity(struct rb_root *tree)
+{
+	struct rb_node *node = tree->rb_node;
+
+	return rb_entry(node, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+}
+
+static struct bfq_entity *bfq_lookup_next_entity(struct bfq_sched_data *sd);
+
+static bool bfq_update_parent_budget(struct bfq_entity *next_in_service);
+
+/**
+ * bfq_update_next_in_service - update sd->next_in_service
+ * @sd: sched_data for which to perform the update.
+ * @new_entity: if not NULL, pointer to the entity whose activation,
+ *		requeueing or repositionig triggered the invocation of
+ *		this function.
+ *
+ * This function is called to update sd->next_in_service, which, in
+ * its turn, may change as a consequence of the insertion or
+ * extraction of an entity into/from one of the active trees of
+ * sd. These insertions/extractions occur as a consequence of
+ * activations/deactivations of entities, with some activations being
+ * 'true' activations, and other activations being requeueings (i.e.,
+ * implementing the second, requeueing phase of the mechanism used to
+ * reposition an entity in its active tree; see comments on
+ * __bfq_activate_entity and __bfq_requeue_entity for details). In
+ * both the last two activation sub-cases, new_entity points to the
+ * just activated or requeued entity.
+ *
+ * Returns true if sd->next_in_service changes in such a way that
+ * entity->parent may become the next_in_service for its parent
+ * entity.
+ */
+static bool bfq_update_next_in_service(struct bfq_sched_data *sd,
+				       struct bfq_entity *new_entity)
+{
+	struct bfq_entity *next_in_service = sd->next_in_service;
+	struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+	bool parent_sched_may_change = false;
+
+	/*
+	 * If this update is triggered by the activation, requeueing
+	 * or repositiong of an entity that does not coincide with
+	 * sd->next_in_service, then a full lookup in the active tree
+	 * can be avoided. In fact, it is enough to check whether the
+	 * just-modified entity has a higher priority than
+	 * sd->next_in_service, or, even if it has the same priority
+	 * as sd->next_in_service, is eligible and has a lower virtual
+	 * finish time than sd->next_in_service. If this compound
+	 * condition holds, then the new entity becomes the new
+	 * next_in_service. Otherwise no change is needed.
+	 */
+	if (new_entity && new_entity != sd->next_in_service) {
+		/*
+		 * Flag used to decide whether to replace
+		 * sd->next_in_service with new_entity. Tentatively
+		 * set to true, and left as true if
+		 * sd->next_in_service is NULL.
+		 */
+		bool replace_next = true;
+
+		/*
+		 * If there is already a next_in_service candidate
+		 * entity, then compare class priorities or timestamps
+		 * to decide whether to replace sd->service_tree with
+		 * new_entity.
+		 */
+		if (next_in_service) {
+			unsigned int new_entity_class_idx =
+				bfq_class_idx(new_entity);
+			struct bfq_service_tree *st =
+				sd->service_tree + new_entity_class_idx;
+
+			/*
+			 * For efficiency, evaluate the most likely
+			 * sub-condition first.
+			 */
+			replace_next =
+				(new_entity_class_idx ==
+				 bfq_class_idx(next_in_service)
+				 &&
+				 !bfq_gt(new_entity->start, st->vtime)
+				 &&
+				 bfq_gt(next_in_service->finish,
+					new_entity->finish))
+				||
+				new_entity_class_idx <
+				bfq_class_idx(next_in_service);
+		}
+
+		if (replace_next)
+			next_in_service = new_entity;
+	} else /* invoked because of a deactivation: lookup needed */
+		next_in_service = bfq_lookup_next_entity(sd);
+
+	if (next_in_service) {
+		parent_sched_may_change = !sd->next_in_service ||
+			bfq_update_parent_budget(next_in_service);
+	}
+
+	sd->next_in_service = next_in_service;
+
+	if (!next_in_service)
+		return parent_sched_may_change;
+
+	bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(next_in_service);
+	if (bfqq)
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+			     "update_next_in_service: chosen this queue");
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+	else {
+		struct bfq_group *bfqg =
+			container_of(next_in_service,
+				     struct bfq_group, entity);
+
+		bfq_log_bfqg((struct bfq_data *)bfqg->bfqd, bfqg,
+			     "update_next_in_service: chosen this entity");
+	}
+#endif
+	return parent_sched_may_change;
+}
+
 #ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
-#define for_each_entity(entity)	\
+/* both next loops stop at one of the child entities of the root group */
+#define for_each_entity(entity)				\
 	for (; entity ; entity = entity->parent)
 
 #define for_each_entity_safe(entity, parent) \
 	for (; entity && ({ parent = entity->parent; 1; }); entity = parent)
 
-
-static struct bfq_entity *bfq_lookup_next_entity(struct bfq_sched_data *sd,
-						 int extract,
-						 struct bfq_data *bfqd);
-
-static struct bfq_group *bfqq_group(struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
-
-static void bfq_update_budget(struct bfq_entity *next_in_service)
+/*
+ * Returns true if this budget changes may let next_in_service->parent
+ * become the next_in_service entity for its parent entity.
+ */
+static bool bfq_update_parent_budget(struct bfq_entity *next_in_service)
 {
 	struct bfq_entity *bfqg_entity;
 	struct bfq_group *bfqg;
 	struct bfq_sched_data *group_sd;
+	bool ret = false;
 
 	BUG_ON(!next_in_service);
 
@@ -41,60 +179,68 @@ static void bfq_update_budget(struct bfq_entity *next_in_service)
 	 * as it must never become an in-service entity.
 	 */
 	bfqg_entity = bfqg->my_entity;
-	if (bfqg_entity)
+	if (bfqg_entity) {
+		if (bfqg_entity->budget > next_in_service->budget)
+			ret = true;
 		bfqg_entity->budget = next_in_service->budget;
+	}
+
+	return ret;
 }
 
-static int bfq_update_next_in_service(struct bfq_sched_data *sd)
+/*
+ * This function tells whether entity stops being a candidate for next
+ * service, according to the following logic.
+ *
+ * This function is invoked for an entity that is about to be set in
+ * service. If such an entity is a queue, then the entity is no longer
+ * a candidate for next service (i.e, a candidate entity to serve
+ * after the in-service entity is expired). The function then returns
+ * true.
+ *
+ * In contrast, the entity could stil be a candidate for next service
+ * if it is not a queue, and has more than one child. In fact, even if
+ * one of its children is about to be set in service, other children
+ * may still be the next to serve. As a consequence, a non-queue
+ * entity is not a candidate for next-service only if it has only one
+ * child. And only if this condition holds, then the function returns
+ * true for a non-queue entity.
+ */
+static bool bfq_no_longer_next_in_service(struct bfq_entity *entity)
 {
-	struct bfq_entity *next_in_service;
+	struct bfq_group *bfqg;
 
-	if (sd->in_service_entity)
-		/* will update/requeue at the end of service */
-		return 0;
+	if (bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity))
+		return true;
 
-	/*
-	 * NOTE: this can be improved in many ways, such as returning
-	 * 1 (and thus propagating upwards the update) only when the
-	 * budget changes, or caching the bfqq that will be scheduled
-	 * next from this subtree.  By now we worry more about
-	 * correctness than about performance...
-	 */
-	next_in_service = bfq_lookup_next_entity(sd, 0, NULL);
-	sd->next_in_service = next_in_service;
+	bfqg = container_of(entity, struct bfq_group, entity);
 
-	if (next_in_service)
-		bfq_update_budget(next_in_service);
+	BUG_ON(bfqg == ((struct bfq_data *)(bfqg->bfqd))->root_group);
+	BUG_ON(bfqg->active_entities == 0);
+	if (bfqg->active_entities == 1)
+		return true;
 
-	return 1;
+	return false;
 }
 
-static void bfq_check_next_in_service(struct bfq_sched_data *sd,
-				      struct bfq_entity *entity)
-{
-	BUG_ON(sd->next_in_service != entity);
-}
-#else
+#else /* CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED */
 #define for_each_entity(entity)	\
 	for (; entity ; entity = NULL)
 
 #define for_each_entity_safe(entity, parent) \
 	for (parent = NULL; entity ; entity = parent)
 
-static int bfq_update_next_in_service(struct bfq_sched_data *sd)
+static bool bfq_update_parent_budget(struct bfq_entity *next_in_service)
 {
-	return 0;
+	return false;
 }
 
-static void bfq_check_next_in_service(struct bfq_sched_data *sd,
-				      struct bfq_entity *entity)
+static bool bfq_no_longer_next_in_service(struct bfq_entity *entity)
 {
+	return true;
 }
 
-static void bfq_update_budget(struct bfq_entity *next_in_service)
-{
-}
-#endif
+#endif /* CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED */
 
 /*
  * Shift for timestamp calculations.  This actually limits the maximum
@@ -105,18 +251,6 @@ static void bfq_update_budget(struct bfq_entity *next_in_service)
  */
 #define WFQ_SERVICE_SHIFT	22
 
-/**
- * bfq_gt - compare two timestamps.
- * @a: first ts.
- * @b: second ts.
- *
- * Return @a > @b, dealing with wrapping correctly.
- */
-static int bfq_gt(u64 a, u64 b)
-{
-	return (s64)(a - b) > 0;
-}
-
 static struct bfq_queue *bfq_entity_to_bfqq(struct bfq_entity *entity)
 {
 	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = NULL;
@@ -151,20 +285,36 @@ static u64 bfq_delta(unsigned long service, unsigned long weight)
 static void bfq_calc_finish(struct bfq_entity *entity, unsigned long service)
 {
 	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+	unsigned long long start, finish, delta;
 
 	BUG_ON(entity->weight == 0);
 
 	entity->finish = entity->start +
 		bfq_delta(service, entity->weight);
 
+	start = ((entity->start>>10)*1000)>>12;
+	finish = ((entity->finish>>10)*1000)>>12;
+	delta = ((bfq_delta(service, entity->weight)>>10)*1000)>>12;
+
 	if (bfqq) {
 		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
 			"calc_finish: serv %lu, w %d",
 			service, entity->weight);
 		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
 			"calc_finish: start %llu, finish %llu, delta %llu",
-			entity->start, entity->finish,
-			bfq_delta(service, entity->weight));
+			start, finish, delta);
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+	} else {
+		struct bfq_group *bfqg =
+			container_of(entity, struct bfq_group, entity);
+
+		bfq_log_bfqg((struct bfq_data *)bfqg->bfqd, bfqg,
+			"calc_finish group: serv %lu, w %d",
+			     service, entity->weight);
+		bfq_log_bfqg((struct bfq_data *)bfqg->bfqd, bfqg,
+			"calc_finish group: start %llu, finish %llu, delta %llu",
+			start, finish, delta);
+#endif
 	}
 }
 
@@ -293,10 +443,26 @@ static void bfq_update_min(struct bfq_entity *entity, struct rb_node *node)
 static void bfq_update_active_node(struct rb_node *node)
 {
 	struct bfq_entity *entity = rb_entry(node, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
+	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
 
 	entity->min_start = entity->start;
 	bfq_update_min(entity, node->rb_right);
 	bfq_update_min(entity, node->rb_left);
+
+	if (bfqq) {
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+			     "update_active_node: new min_start %llu",
+			     ((entity->min_start>>10)*1000)>>12);
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+	} else {
+		struct bfq_group *bfqg =
+			container_of(entity, struct bfq_group, entity);
+
+		bfq_log_bfqg((struct bfq_data *)bfqg->bfqd, bfqg,
+			     "update_active_node: new min_start %llu",
+			     ((entity->min_start>>10)*1000)>>12);
+#endif
+	}
 }
 
 /**
@@ -386,8 +552,6 @@ static void bfq_active_insert(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
 		BUG_ON(!bfqg);
 		BUG_ON(!bfqd);
 		bfqg->active_entities++;
-		if (bfqg->active_entities == 2)
-			bfqd->active_numerous_groups++;
 	}
 #endif
 }
@@ -399,7 +563,7 @@ static void bfq_active_insert(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
 static unsigned short bfq_ioprio_to_weight(int ioprio)
 {
 	BUG_ON(ioprio < 0 || ioprio >= IOPRIO_BE_NR);
-	return IOPRIO_BE_NR * BFQ_WEIGHT_CONVERSION_COEFF - ioprio;
+	return (IOPRIO_BE_NR - ioprio) * BFQ_WEIGHT_CONVERSION_COEFF;
 }
 
 /**
@@ -422,9 +586,9 @@ static void bfq_get_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity)
 	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
 
 	if (bfqq) {
-		atomic_inc(&bfqq->ref);
+		bfqq->ref++;
 		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "get_entity: %p %d",
-			     bfqq, atomic_read(&bfqq->ref));
+			     bfqq, bfqq->ref);
 	}
 }
 
@@ -499,10 +663,6 @@ static void bfq_active_extract(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
 		BUG_ON(!bfqd);
 		BUG_ON(!bfqg->active_entities);
 		bfqg->active_entities--;
-		if (bfqg->active_entities == 1) {
-			BUG_ON(!bfqd->active_numerous_groups);
-			bfqd->active_numerous_groups--;
-		}
 	}
 #endif
 }
@@ -547,12 +707,12 @@ static void bfq_forget_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
 
 	BUG_ON(!entity->on_st);
 
-	entity->on_st = 0;
+	entity->on_st = false;
 	st->wsum -= entity->weight;
 	if (bfqq) {
 		sd = entity->sched_data;
 		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "forget_entity: %p %d",
-			     bfqq, atomic_read(&bfqq->ref));
+			     bfqq, bfqq->ref);
 		bfq_put_queue(bfqq);
 	}
 }
@@ -602,7 +762,7 @@ __bfq_entity_update_weight_prio(struct bfq_service_tree *old_st,
 
 	if (entity->prio_changed) {
 		struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
-		unsigned short prev_weight, new_weight;
+		unsigned int prev_weight, new_weight;
 		struct bfq_data *bfqd = NULL;
 		struct rb_root *root;
 #ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
@@ -630,7 +790,10 @@ __bfq_entity_update_weight_prio(struct bfq_service_tree *old_st,
 			    entity->new_weight > BFQ_MAX_WEIGHT) {
 				pr_crit("update_weight_prio: new_weight %d\n",
 					entity->new_weight);
-				BUG();
+				if (entity->new_weight < BFQ_MIN_WEIGHT)
+					entity->new_weight = BFQ_MIN_WEIGHT;
+				else
+					entity->new_weight = BFQ_MAX_WEIGHT;
 			}
 			entity->orig_weight = entity->new_weight;
 			if (bfqq)
@@ -661,6 +824,13 @@ __bfq_entity_update_weight_prio(struct bfq_service_tree *old_st,
 		 * associated with its new weight.
 		 */
 		if (prev_weight != new_weight) {
+			if (bfqq)
+				bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+					     "weight changed %d %d(%d %d)",
+					     prev_weight, new_weight,
+					     entity->orig_weight,
+					     bfqq->wr_coeff);
+
 			root = bfqq ? &bfqd->queue_weights_tree :
 				      &bfqd->group_weights_tree;
 			bfq_weights_tree_remove(bfqd, entity, root);
@@ -707,7 +877,7 @@ static void bfq_bfqq_served(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, int served)
 		st = bfq_entity_service_tree(entity);
 
 		entity->service += served;
-		BUG_ON(entity->service > entity->budget);
+
 		BUG_ON(st->wsum == 0);
 
 		st->vtime += bfq_delta(served, st->wsum);
@@ -716,170 +886,419 @@ static void bfq_bfqq_served(struct bfq_queue *bfqq, int served)
 #ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 	bfqg_stats_set_start_empty_time(bfqq_group(bfqq));
 #endif
-	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "bfqq_served %d secs", served);
+	st = bfq_entity_service_tree(&bfqq->entity);
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "bfqq_served %d secs, vtime %llu on %p",
+		     served,  ((st->vtime>>10)*1000)>>12, st);
 }
 
 /**
- * bfq_bfqq_charge_full_budget - set the service to the entity budget.
+ * bfq_bfqq_charge_time - charge an amount of service equivalent to the length
+ *			  of the time interval during which bfqq has been in
+ *			  service.
+ * @bfqd: the device
  * @bfqq: the queue that needs a service update.
+ * @time_ms: the amount of time during which the queue has received service
  *
- * When it's not possible to be fair in the service domain, because
- * a queue is not consuming its budget fast enough (the meaning of
- * fast depends on the timeout parameter), we charge it a full
- * budget.  In this way we should obtain a sort of time-domain
- * fairness among all the seeky/slow queues.
+ * If a queue does not consume its budget fast enough, then providing
+ * the queue with service fairness may impair throughput, more or less
+ * severely. For this reason, queues that consume their budget slowly
+ * are provided with time fairness instead of service fairness. This
+ * goal is achieved through the BFQ scheduling engine, even if such an
+ * engine works in the service, and not in the time domain. The trick
+ * is charging these queues with an inflated amount of service, equal
+ * to the amount of service that they would have received during their
+ * service slot if they had been fast, i.e., if their requests had
+ * been dispatched at a rate equal to the estimated peak rate.
+ *
+ * It is worth noting that time fairness can cause important
+ * distortions in terms of bandwidth distribution, on devices with
+ * internal queueing. The reason is that I/O requests dispatched
+ * during the service slot of a queue may be served after that service
+ * slot is finished, and may have a total processing time loosely
+ * correlated with the duration of the service slot. This is
+ * especially true for short service slots.
  */
-static void bfq_bfqq_charge_full_budget(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+static void bfq_bfqq_charge_time(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
+				 unsigned long time_ms)
 {
 	struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+	int tot_serv_to_charge = entity->service;
+	unsigned int timeout_ms = jiffies_to_msecs(bfq_timeout);
 
-	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "charge_full_budget");
+	if (time_ms > 0 && time_ms < timeout_ms)
+		tot_serv_to_charge =
+			(bfqd->bfq_max_budget * time_ms) / timeout_ms;
 
-	bfq_bfqq_served(bfqq, entity->budget - entity->service);
+	if (tot_serv_to_charge < entity->service)
+		tot_serv_to_charge = entity->service;
+
+	bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+		     "charge_time: %lu/%u ms, %d/%d/%d sectors",
+		     time_ms, timeout_ms, entity->service,
+		     tot_serv_to_charge, entity->budget);
+
+	/* Increase budget to avoid inconsistencies */
+	if (tot_serv_to_charge > entity->budget)
+		entity->budget = tot_serv_to_charge;
+
+	bfq_bfqq_served(bfqq,
+			max_t(int, 0, tot_serv_to_charge - entity->service));
+}
+
+static void bfq_update_fin_time_enqueue(struct bfq_entity *entity,
+					struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+					bool backshifted)
+{
+	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+	struct bfq_sched_data *sd = entity->sched_data;
+
+	st = __bfq_entity_update_weight_prio(st, entity);
+	bfq_calc_finish(entity, entity->budget);
+
+	/*
+	 * If some queues enjoy backshifting for a while, then their
+	 * (virtual) finish timestamps may happen to become lower and
+	 * lower than the system virtual time.  In particular, if
+	 * these queues often happen to be idle for short time
+	 * periods, and during such time periods other queues with
+	 * higher timestamps happen to be busy, then the backshifted
+	 * timestamps of the former queues can become much lower than
+	 * the system virtual time. In fact, to serve the queues with
+	 * higher timestamps while the ones with lower timestamps are
+	 * idle, the system virtual time may be pushed-up to much
+	 * higher values than the finish timestamps of the idle
+	 * queues. As a consequence, the finish timestamps of all new
+	 * or newly activated queues may end up being much larger than
+	 * those of lucky queues with backshifted timestamps. The
+	 * latter queues may then monopolize the device for a lot of
+	 * time. This would simply break service guarantees.
+	 *
+	 * To reduce this problem, push up a little bit the
+	 * backshifted timestamps of the queue associated with this
+	 * entity (only a queue can happen to have the backshifted
+	 * flag set): just enough to let the finish timestamp of the
+	 * queue be equal to the current value of the system virtual
+	 * time. This may introduce a little unfairness among queues
+	 * with backshifted timestamps, but it does not break
+	 * worst-case fairness guarantees.
+	 *
+	 * As a special case, if bfqq is weight-raised, push up
+	 * timestamps much less, to keep very low the probability that
+	 * this push up causes the backshifted finish timestamps of
+	 * weight-raised queues to become higher than the backshifted
+	 * finish timestamps of non weight-raised queues.
+	 */
+	if (backshifted && bfq_gt(st->vtime, entity->finish)) {
+		unsigned long delta = st->vtime - entity->finish;
+
+		if (bfqq)
+			delta /= bfqq->wr_coeff;
+
+		entity->start += delta;
+		entity->finish += delta;
+
+		if (bfqq) {
+			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+				     "__activate_entity: new queue finish %llu",
+				     ((entity->finish>>10)*1000)>>12);
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+		} else {
+			struct bfq_group *bfqg =
+				container_of(entity, struct bfq_group, entity);
+
+			bfq_log_bfqg((struct bfq_data *)bfqg->bfqd, bfqg,
+				     "__activate_entity: new group finish %llu",
+				     ((entity->finish>>10)*1000)>>12);
+#endif
+		}
+	}
+
+	bfq_active_insert(st, entity);
+
+	if (bfqq) {
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+			"__activate_entity: queue %seligible in st %p",
+			     entity->start <= st->vtime ? "" : "non ", st);
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+	} else {
+		struct bfq_group *bfqg =
+			container_of(entity, struct bfq_group, entity);
+
+		bfq_log_bfqg((struct bfq_data *)bfqg->bfqd, bfqg,
+			"__activate_entity: group %seligible in st %p",
+			     entity->start <= st->vtime ? "" : "non ", st);
+#endif
+	}
+	BUG_ON(RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&st->active));
+	BUG_ON(&st->active != &sd->service_tree->active &&
+	       &st->active != &(sd->service_tree+1)->active &&
+	       &st->active != &(sd->service_tree+2)->active);
 }
 
 /**
- * __bfq_activate_entity - activate an entity.
+ * __bfq_activate_entity - handle activation of entity.
  * @entity: the entity being activated.
+ * @non_blocking_wait_rq: true if entity was waiting for a request
  *
- * Called whenever an entity is activated, i.e., it is not active and one
- * of its children receives a new request, or has to be reactivated due to
- * budget exhaustion.  It uses the current budget of the entity (and the
- * service received if @entity is active) of the queue to calculate its
- * timestamps.
+ * Called for a 'true' activation, i.e., if entity is not active and
+ * one of its children receives a new request.
+ *
+ * Basically, this function updates the timestamps of entity and
+ * inserts entity into its active tree, ater possible extracting it
+ * from its idle tree.
  */
-static void __bfq_activate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity)
+static void __bfq_activate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity,
+				  bool non_blocking_wait_rq)
 {
 	struct bfq_sched_data *sd = entity->sched_data;
 	struct bfq_service_tree *st = bfq_entity_service_tree(entity);
+	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+	bool backshifted = false;
+	unsigned long long min_vstart;
 
-	if (entity == sd->in_service_entity) {
-		BUG_ON(entity->tree);
-		/*
-		 * If we are requeueing the current entity we have
-		 * to take care of not charging to it service it has
-		 * not received.
-		 */
-		bfq_calc_finish(entity, entity->service);
-		entity->start = entity->finish;
-		sd->in_service_entity = NULL;
-	} else if (entity->tree == &st->active) {
-		/*
-		 * Requeueing an entity due to a change of some
-		 * next_in_service entity below it.  We reuse the
-		 * old start time.
-		 */
-		bfq_active_extract(st, entity);
-	} else if (entity->tree == &st->idle) {
+	BUG_ON(!sd);
+	BUG_ON(!st);
+
+	/* See comments on bfq_fqq_update_budg_for_activation */
+	if (non_blocking_wait_rq && bfq_gt(st->vtime, entity->finish)) {
+		backshifted = true;
+		min_vstart = entity->finish;
+	} else
+		min_vstart = st->vtime;
+
+	if (entity->tree == &st->idle) {
 		/*
 		 * Must be on the idle tree, bfq_idle_extract() will
 		 * check for that.
 		 */
 		bfq_idle_extract(st, entity);
-		entity->start = bfq_gt(st->vtime, entity->finish) ?
-				       st->vtime : entity->finish;
+		entity->start = bfq_gt(min_vstart, entity->finish) ?
+			min_vstart : entity->finish;
 	} else {
 		/*
 		 * The finish time of the entity may be invalid, and
 		 * it is in the past for sure, otherwise the queue
 		 * would have been on the idle tree.
 		 */
-		entity->start = st->vtime;
+		entity->start = min_vstart;
 		st->wsum += entity->weight;
 		bfq_get_entity(entity);
 
-		BUG_ON(entity->on_st);
-		entity->on_st = 1;
+		BUG_ON(entity->on_st && bfqq);
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+		if (entity->on_st && !bfqq) {
+			struct bfq_group *bfqg =
+				container_of(entity, struct bfq_group,
+					     entity);
+
+			bfq_log_bfqg((struct bfq_data *)bfqg->bfqd,
+				     bfqg,
+				     "activate bug, class %d in_service %p",
+				     bfq_class_idx(entity), sd->in_service_entity);
+		}
+#endif
+		BUG_ON(entity->on_st && !bfqq);
+		entity->on_st = true;
+	}
+
+	bfq_update_fin_time_enqueue(entity, st, backshifted);
+}
+
+/**
+ * __bfq_requeue_entity - handle requeueing or repositioning of an entity.
+ * @entity: the entity being requeued or repositioned.
+ *
+ * Requeueing is needed if this entity stops being served, which
+ * happens if a leaf descendant entity has expired. On the other hand,
+ * repositioning is needed if the next_inservice_entity for the child
+ * entity has changed. See the comments inside the function for
+ * details.
+ *
+ * Basically, this function: 1) removes entity from its active tree if
+ * present there, 2) updates the timestamps of entity and 3) inserts
+ * entity back into its active tree (in the new, right position for
+ * the new values of the timestamps).
+ */
+static void __bfq_requeue_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+	struct bfq_sched_data *sd = entity->sched_data;
+	struct bfq_service_tree *st = bfq_entity_service_tree(entity);
+
+	BUG_ON(!sd);
+	BUG_ON(!st);
+
+	BUG_ON(entity != sd->in_service_entity &&
+	       entity->tree != &st->active);
+
+	if (entity == sd->in_service_entity) {
+		/*
+		 * We are requeueing the current in-service entity,
+		 * which may have to be done for one of the following
+		 * reasons:
+		 * - entity represents the in-service queue, and the
+		 *   in-service queue is being requeued after an
+		 *   expiration;
+		 * - entity represents a group, and its budget has
+		 *   changed because one of its child entities has
+		 *   just been either activated or requeued for some
+		 *   reason; the timestamps of the entity need then to
+		 *   be updated, and the entity needs to be enqueued
+		 *   or repositioned accordingly.
+		 *
+		 * In particular, before requeueing, the start time of
+		 * the entity must be moved forward to account for the
+		 * service that the entity has received while in
+		 * service. This is done by the next instructions. The
+		 * finish time will then be updated according to this
+		 * new value of the start time, and to the budget of
+		 * the entity.
+		 */
+		bfq_calc_finish(entity, entity->service);
+		entity->start = entity->finish;
+		BUG_ON(entity->tree && entity->tree != &st->active);
+		/*
+		 * In addition, if the entity had more than one child
+		 * when set in service, then was not extracted from
+		 * the active tree. This implies that the position of
+		 * the entity in the active tree may need to be
+		 * changed now, because we have just updated the start
+		 * time of the entity, and we will update its finish
+		 * time in a moment (the requeueing is then, more
+		 * precisely, a repositioning in this case). To
+		 * implement this repositioning, we: 1) dequeue the
+		 * entity here, 2) update the finish time and
+		 * requeue the entity according to the new
+		 * timestamps below.
+		 */
+		if (entity->tree)
+			bfq_active_extract(st, entity);
+	} else { /* The entity is already active, and not in service */
+		/*
+		 * In this case, this function gets called only if the
+		 * next_in_service entity below this entity has
+		 * changed, and this change has caused the budget of
+		 * this entity to change, which, finally implies that
+		 * the finish time of this entity must be
+		 * updated. Such an update may cause the scheduling,
+		 * i.e., the position in the active tree, of this
+		 * entity to change. We handle this change by: 1)
+		 * dequeueing the entity here, 2) updating the finish
+		 * time and requeueing the entity according to the new
+		 * timestamps below. This is the same approach as the
+		 * non-extracted-entity sub-case above.
+		 */
+		bfq_active_extract(st, entity);
 	}
 
-	st = __bfq_entity_update_weight_prio(st, entity);
-	bfq_calc_finish(entity, entity->budget);
-	bfq_active_insert(st, entity);
+	bfq_update_fin_time_enqueue(entity, st, false);
 }
 
+static void __bfq_activate_requeue_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity,
+					  struct bfq_sched_data *sd,
+					  bool non_blocking_wait_rq)
+{
+	struct bfq_service_tree *st = bfq_entity_service_tree(entity);
+
+	if (sd->in_service_entity == entity || entity->tree == &st->active)
+		 /*
+		  * in service or already queued on the active tree,
+		  * requeue or reposition
+		  */
+		__bfq_requeue_entity(entity);
+	else
+		/*
+		 * Not in service and not queued on its active tree:
+		 * the activity is idle and this is a true activation.
+		 */
+		__bfq_activate_entity(entity, non_blocking_wait_rq);
+}
+
+
 /**
- * bfq_activate_entity - activate an entity and its ancestors if necessary.
+ * bfq_activate_entity - activate or requeue an entity representing a bfq_queue,
+ *			 and activate, requeue or reposition all ancestors
+ *			 for which such an update becomes necessary.
  * @entity: the entity to activate.
- *
- * Activate @entity and all the entities on the path from it to the root.
+ * @non_blocking_wait_rq: true if this entity was waiting for a request
+ * @requeue: true if this is a requeue, which implies that bfqq is
+ *	     being expired; thus ALL its ancestors stop being served and must
+ *	     therefore be requeued
  */
-static void bfq_activate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity)
+static void bfq_activate_requeue_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity,
+					bool non_blocking_wait_rq,
+					bool requeue)
 {
 	struct bfq_sched_data *sd;
 
 	for_each_entity(entity) {
-		__bfq_activate_entity(entity);
-
+		BUG_ON(!entity);
 		sd = entity->sched_data;
-		if (!bfq_update_next_in_service(sd))
-			/*
-			 * No need to propagate the activation to the
-			 * upper entities, as they will be updated when
-			 * the in-service entity is rescheduled.
-			 */
+		__bfq_activate_requeue_entity(entity, sd, non_blocking_wait_rq);
+
+		BUG_ON(RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&sd->service_tree->active) &&
+		       RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&(sd->service_tree+1)->active) &&
+		       RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&(sd->service_tree+2)->active));
+
+		if (!bfq_update_next_in_service(sd, entity) && !requeue) {
+			BUG_ON(!sd->next_in_service);
 			break;
+		}
+		BUG_ON(!sd->next_in_service);
 	}
 }
 
 /**
  * __bfq_deactivate_entity - deactivate an entity from its service tree.
  * @entity: the entity to deactivate.
- * @requeue: if false, the entity will not be put into the idle tree.
+ * @ins_into_idle_tree: if false, the entity will not be put into the
+ *			idle tree.
  *
- * Deactivate an entity, independently from its previous state.  If the
- * entity was not on a service tree just return, otherwise if it is on
- * any scheduler tree, extract it from that tree, and if necessary
- * and if the caller did not specify @requeue, put it on the idle tree.
- *
- * Return %1 if the caller should update the entity hierarchy, i.e.,
- * if the entity was in service or if it was the next_in_service for
- * its sched_data; return %0 otherwise.
+ * Deactivates an entity, independently from its previous state.  Must
+ * be invoked only if entity is on a service tree. Extracts the entity
+ * from that tree, and if necessary and allowed, puts it on the idle
+ * tree.
  */
-static int __bfq_deactivate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity, int requeue)
+static bool __bfq_deactivate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity,
+				    bool ins_into_idle_tree)
 {
 	struct bfq_sched_data *sd = entity->sched_data;
-	struct bfq_service_tree *st;
-	int was_in_service;
-	int ret = 0;
+	struct bfq_service_tree *st = bfq_entity_service_tree(entity);
+	bool was_in_service = entity == sd->in_service_entity;
 
-	if (sd == NULL || !entity->on_st) /* never activated, or inactive */
-		return 0;
+	if (!entity->on_st) { /* entity never activated, or already inactive */
+		BUG_ON(entity == entity->sched_data->in_service_entity);
+		return false;
+	}
 
-	st = bfq_entity_service_tree(entity);
-	was_in_service = entity == sd->in_service_entity;
+	BUG_ON(was_in_service && entity->tree && entity->tree != &st->active);
 
-	BUG_ON(was_in_service && entity->tree);
-
-	if (was_in_service) {
+	if (was_in_service)
 		bfq_calc_finish(entity, entity->service);
-		sd->in_service_entity = NULL;
-	} else if (entity->tree == &st->active)
+
+	if (entity->tree == &st->active)
 		bfq_active_extract(st, entity);
-	else if (entity->tree == &st->idle)
+	else if (!was_in_service && entity->tree == &st->idle)
 		bfq_idle_extract(st, entity);
 	else if (entity->tree)
 		BUG();
 
-	if (was_in_service || sd->next_in_service == entity)
-		ret = bfq_update_next_in_service(sd);
-
-	if (!requeue || !bfq_gt(entity->finish, st->vtime))
+	if (!ins_into_idle_tree || !bfq_gt(entity->finish, st->vtime))
 		bfq_forget_entity(st, entity);
 	else
 		bfq_idle_insert(st, entity);
 
-	BUG_ON(sd->in_service_entity == entity);
-	BUG_ON(sd->next_in_service == entity);
-
-	return ret;
+	return true;
 }
 
 /**
- * bfq_deactivate_entity - deactivate an entity.
+ * bfq_deactivate_entity - deactivate an entity representing a bfq_queue.
  * @entity: the entity to deactivate.
- * @requeue: true if the entity can be put on the idle tree
+ * @ins_into_idle_tree: true if the entity can be put on the idle tree
  */
-static void bfq_deactivate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity, int requeue)
+static void bfq_deactivate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity,
+				  bool ins_into_idle_tree,
+				  bool expiration)
 {
 	struct bfq_sched_data *sd;
 	struct bfq_entity *parent;
@@ -887,63 +1306,154 @@ static void bfq_deactivate_entity(struct bfq_entity *entity, int requeue)
 	for_each_entity_safe(entity, parent) {
 		sd = entity->sched_data;
 
-		if (!__bfq_deactivate_entity(entity, requeue))
+		BUG_ON(sd == NULL); /*
+				     * It would mean that this is the
+				     * root group.
+				     */
+
+		BUG_ON(expiration && entity != sd->in_service_entity);
+
+		BUG_ON(entity != sd->in_service_entity &&
+		       entity->tree ==
+		       &bfq_entity_service_tree(entity)->active &&
+		       !sd->next_in_service);
+
+		if (!__bfq_deactivate_entity(entity, ins_into_idle_tree)) {
 			/*
-			 * The parent entity is still backlogged, and
-			 * we don't need to update it as it is still
-			 * in service.
+			 * Entity is not any tree any more, so, this
+			 * deactivation is a no-op, and there is
+			 * nothing to change for upper-level entities
+			 * (in case of expiration, this can never
+			 * happen).
 			 */
+			BUG_ON(expiration); /*
+					     * entity cannot be already out of
+					     * any tree
+					     */
+			return;
+		}
+
+		if (sd->next_in_service == entity)
+			/*
+			 * entity was the next_in_service entity,
+			 * then, since entity has just been
+			 * deactivated, a new one must be found.
+			 */
+			bfq_update_next_in_service(sd, NULL);
+
+		if (sd->next_in_service) {
+			/*
+			 * The parent entity is still backlogged,
+			 * because next_in_service is not NULL. So, no
+			 * further upwards deactivation must be
+			 * performed.  Yet, next_in_service has
+			 * changed.  Then the schedule does need to be
+			 * updated upwards.
+			 */
+			BUG_ON(sd->next_in_service == entity);
 			break;
+		}
 
-		if (sd->next_in_service)
-			/*
-			 * The parent entity is still backlogged and
-			 * the budgets on the path towards the root
-			 * need to be updated.
-			 */
-			goto update;
+		/*
+		 * If we get here, then the parent is no more
+		 * backlogged and we need to propagate the
+		 * deactivation upwards. Thus let the loop go on.
+		 */
 
 		/*
-		 * If we reach there the parent is no more backlogged and
-		 * we want to propagate the dequeue upwards.
+		 * Also let parent be queued into the idle tree on
+		 * deactivation, to preserve service guarantees, and
+		 * assuming that who invoked this function does not
+		 * need parent entities too to be removed completely.
 		 */
-		requeue = 1;
+		ins_into_idle_tree = true;
 	}
 
-	return;
-
-update:
+	/*
+	 * If the deactivation loop is fully executed, then there are
+	 * no more entities to touch and next loop is not executed at
+	 * all. Otherwise, requeue remaining entities if they are
+	 * about to stop receiving service, or reposition them if this
+	 * is not the case.
+	 */
 	entity = parent;
 	for_each_entity(entity) {
-		__bfq_activate_entity(entity);
+		struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+
+		/*
+		 * Invoke __bfq_requeue_entity on entity, even if
+		 * already active, to requeue/reposition it in the
+		 * active tree (because sd->next_in_service has
+		 * changed)
+		 */
+		__bfq_requeue_entity(entity);
 
 		sd = entity->sched_data;
-		if (!bfq_update_next_in_service(sd))
+		BUG_ON(expiration && sd->in_service_entity != entity);
+
+		if (bfqq)
+			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+				     "invoking udpdate_next for this queue");
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+		else {
+			struct bfq_group *bfqg =
+				container_of(entity,
+					     struct bfq_group, entity);
+
+			bfq_log_bfqg((struct bfq_data *)bfqg->bfqd, bfqg,
+				     "invoking udpdate_next for this entity");
+		}
+#endif
+		if (!bfq_update_next_in_service(sd, entity) &&
+		    !expiration)
+			/*
+			 * next_in_service unchanged or not causing
+			 * any change in entity->parent->sd, and no
+			 * requeueing needed for expiration: stop
+			 * here.
+			 */
 			break;
 	}
 }
 
 /**
- * bfq_update_vtime - update vtime if necessary.
+ * bfq_calc_vtime_jump - compute the value to which the vtime should jump,
+ *                       if needed, to have at least one entity eligible.
  * @st: the service tree to act upon.
  *
- * If necessary update the service tree vtime to have at least one
- * eligible entity, skipping to its start time.  Assumes that the
- * active tree of the device is not empty.
- *
- * NOTE: this hierarchical implementation updates vtimes quite often,
- * we may end up with reactivated processes getting timestamps after a
- * vtime skip done because we needed a ->first_active entity on some
- * intermediate node.
+ * Assumes that st is not empty.
  */
-static void bfq_update_vtime(struct bfq_service_tree *st)
+static u64 bfq_calc_vtime_jump(struct bfq_service_tree *st)
 {
-	struct bfq_entity *entry;
-	struct rb_node *node = st->active.rb_node;
+	struct bfq_entity *root_entity = bfq_root_active_entity(&st->active);
 
-	entry = rb_entry(node, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
-	if (bfq_gt(entry->min_start, st->vtime)) {
-		st->vtime = entry->min_start;
+	if (bfq_gt(root_entity->min_start, st->vtime)) {
+		struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(root_entity);
+
+		if (bfqq)
+			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+				     "calc_vtime_jump: new value %llu",
+				     root_entity->min_start);
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+		else {
+			struct bfq_group *bfqg =
+				container_of(root_entity, struct bfq_group,
+					     entity);
+
+			bfq_log_bfqg((struct bfq_data *)bfqg->bfqd, bfqg,
+				     "calc_vtime_jump: new value %llu",
+				     root_entity->min_start);
+		}
+#endif
+		return root_entity->min_start;
+	}
+	return st->vtime;
+}
+
+static void bfq_update_vtime(struct bfq_service_tree *st, u64 new_value)
+{
+	if (new_value > st->vtime) {
+		st->vtime = new_value;
 		bfq_forget_idle(st);
 	}
 }
@@ -952,6 +1462,7 @@ static void bfq_update_vtime(struct bfq_service_tree *st)
  * bfq_first_active_entity - find the eligible entity with
  *                           the smallest finish time
  * @st: the service tree to select from.
+ * @vtime: the system virtual to use as a reference for eligibility
  *
  * This function searches the first schedulable entity, starting from the
  * root of the tree and going on the left every time on this side there is
@@ -959,7 +1470,8 @@ static void bfq_update_vtime(struct bfq_service_tree *st)
  * the right is followed only if a) the left subtree contains no eligible
  * entities and b) no eligible entity has been found yet.
  */
-static struct bfq_entity *bfq_first_active_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st)
+static struct bfq_entity *bfq_first_active_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
+						  u64 vtime)
 {
 	struct bfq_entity *entry, *first = NULL;
 	struct rb_node *node = st->active.rb_node;
@@ -967,15 +1479,15 @@ static struct bfq_entity *bfq_first_active_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st)
 	while (node) {
 		entry = rb_entry(node, struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
 left:
-		if (!bfq_gt(entry->start, st->vtime))
+		if (!bfq_gt(entry->start, vtime))
 			first = entry;
 
-		BUG_ON(bfq_gt(entry->min_start, st->vtime));
+		BUG_ON(bfq_gt(entry->min_start, vtime));
 
 		if (node->rb_left) {
 			entry = rb_entry(node->rb_left,
 					 struct bfq_entity, rb_node);
-			if (!bfq_gt(entry->min_start, st->vtime)) {
+			if (!bfq_gt(entry->min_start, vtime)) {
 				node = node->rb_left;
 				goto left;
 			}
@@ -993,31 +1505,84 @@ static struct bfq_entity *bfq_first_active_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st)
  * __bfq_lookup_next_entity - return the first eligible entity in @st.
  * @st: the service tree.
  *
- * Update the virtual time in @st and return the first eligible entity
- * it contains.
+ * If there is no in-service entity for the sched_data st belongs to,
+ * then return the entity that will be set in service if:
+ * 1) the parent entity this st belongs to is set in service;
+ * 2) no entity belonging to such parent entity undergoes a state change
+ * that would influence the timestamps of the entity (e.g., becomes idle,
+ * becomes backlogged, changes its budget, ...).
+ *
+ * In this first case, update the virtual time in @st too (see the
+ * comments on this update inside the function).
+ *
+ * In constrast, if there is an in-service entity, then return the
+ * entity that would be set in service if not only the above
+ * conditions, but also the next one held true: the currently
+ * in-service entity, on expiration,
+ * 1) gets a finish time equal to the current one, or
+ * 2) is not eligible any more, or
+ * 3) is idle.
  */
-static struct bfq_entity *__bfq_lookup_next_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
-						   bool force)
+static struct bfq_entity *
+__bfq_lookup_next_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st, bool in_service
+#if 0
+			 , bool force
+#endif
+	)
 {
-	struct bfq_entity *entity, *new_next_in_service = NULL;
+	struct bfq_entity *entity
+#if 0
+		, *new_next_in_service = NULL
+#endif
+		;
+	u64 new_vtime;
+	struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
 
 	if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&st->active))
 		return NULL;
 
-	bfq_update_vtime(st);
-	entity = bfq_first_active_entity(st);
-	BUG_ON(bfq_gt(entity->start, st->vtime));
+	/*
+	 * Get the value of the system virtual time for which at
+	 * least one entity is eligible.
+	 */
+	new_vtime = bfq_calc_vtime_jump(st);
 
 	/*
-	 * If the chosen entity does not match with the sched_data's
-	 * next_in_service and we are forcedly serving the IDLE priority
-	 * class tree, bubble up budget update.
+	 * If there is no in-service entity for the sched_data this
+	 * active tree belongs to, then push the system virtual time
+	 * up to the value that guarantees that at least one entity is
+	 * eligible. If, instead, there is an in-service entity, then
+	 * do not make any such update, because there is already an
+	 * eligible entity, namely the in-service one (even if the
+	 * entity is not on st, because it was extracted when set in
+	 * service).
 	 */
-	if (unlikely(force && entity != entity->sched_data->next_in_service)) {
-		new_next_in_service = entity;
-		for_each_entity(new_next_in_service)
-			bfq_update_budget(new_next_in_service);
+	if (!in_service)
+		bfq_update_vtime(st, new_vtime);
+
+	entity = bfq_first_active_entity(st, new_vtime);
+	BUG_ON(bfq_gt(entity->start, new_vtime));
+
+	/* Log some information */
+	bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+	if (bfqq)
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+			     "__lookup_next: start %llu vtime %llu st %p",
+			     ((entity->start>>10)*1000)>>12,
+			     ((new_vtime>>10)*1000)>>12, st);
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+	else {
+		struct bfq_group *bfqg =
+			container_of(entity, struct bfq_group, entity);
+
+		bfq_log_bfqg((struct bfq_data *)bfqg->bfqd, bfqg,
+			     "__lookup_next: start %llu vtime %llu st %p",
+			     ((entity->start>>10)*1000)>>12,
+			     ((new_vtime>>10)*1000)>>12, st);
 	}
+#endif
+
+	BUG_ON(!entity);
 
 	return entity;
 }
@@ -1025,50 +1590,81 @@ static struct bfq_entity *__bfq_lookup_next_entity(struct bfq_service_tree *st,
 /**
  * bfq_lookup_next_entity - return the first eligible entity in @sd.
  * @sd: the sched_data.
- * @extract: if true the returned entity will be also extracted from @sd.
  *
- * NOTE: since we cache the next_in_service entity at each level of the
- * hierarchy, the complexity of the lookup can be decreased with
- * absolutely no effort just returning the cached next_in_service value;
- * we prefer to do full lookups to test the consistency of * the data
- * structures.
+ * This function is invoked when there has been a change in the trees
+ * for sd, and we need know what is the new next entity after this
+ * change.
  */
-static struct bfq_entity *bfq_lookup_next_entity(struct bfq_sched_data *sd,
-						 int extract,
-						 struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+static struct bfq_entity *bfq_lookup_next_entity(struct bfq_sched_data *sd)
 {
 	struct bfq_service_tree *st = sd->service_tree;
-	struct bfq_entity *entity;
-	int i = 0;
+	struct bfq_service_tree *idle_class_st = st + (BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES - 1);
+	struct bfq_entity *entity = NULL;
+	struct bfq_queue *bfqq;
+	int class_idx = 0;
 
-	BUG_ON(sd->in_service_entity);
-
-	if (bfqd &&
-	    jiffies - bfqd->bfq_class_idle_last_service > BFQ_CL_IDLE_TIMEOUT) {
-		entity = __bfq_lookup_next_entity(st + BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES - 1,
-						  true);
-		if (entity) {
-			i = BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES - 1;
-			bfqd->bfq_class_idle_last_service = jiffies;
-			sd->next_in_service = entity;
-		}
+	BUG_ON(!sd);
+	BUG_ON(!st);
+	/*
+	 * Choose from idle class, if needed to guarantee a minimum
+	 * bandwidth to this class (and if there is some active entity
+	 * in idle class). This should also mitigate
+	 * priority-inversion problems in case a low priority task is
+	 * holding file system resources.
+	 */
+	if (time_is_before_jiffies(sd->bfq_class_idle_last_service +
+				   BFQ_CL_IDLE_TIMEOUT)) {
+		if (!RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&idle_class_st->active))
+			class_idx = BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES - 1;
+		/* About to be served if backlogged, or not yet backlogged */
+		sd->bfq_class_idle_last_service = jiffies;
 	}
-	for (; i < BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES; i++) {
-		entity = __bfq_lookup_next_entity(st + i, false);
-		if (entity) {
-			if (extract) {
-				bfq_check_next_in_service(sd, entity);
-				bfq_active_extract(st + i, entity);
-				sd->in_service_entity = entity;
-				sd->next_in_service = NULL;
-			}
+
+	/*
+	 * Find the next entity to serve for the highest-priority
+	 * class, unless the idle class needs to be served.
+	 */
+	for (; class_idx < BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES; class_idx++) {
+		entity = __bfq_lookup_next_entity(st + class_idx,
+						  sd->in_service_entity);
+
+		if (entity)
 			break;
-		}
 	}
 
+	BUG_ON(!entity &&
+	       (!RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&st->active) || !RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&(st+1)->active) ||
+		!RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&(st+2)->active)));
+
+	if (!entity)
+		return NULL;
+
+	/* Log some information */
+	bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+	if (bfqq)
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq, "chosen from st %p %d",
+			     st + class_idx, class_idx);
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+	else {
+		struct bfq_group *bfqg =
+			container_of(entity, struct bfq_group, entity);
+
+		bfq_log_bfqg((struct bfq_data *)bfqg->bfqd, bfqg,
+			     "chosen from st %p %d",
+			     st + class_idx, class_idx);
+	}
+#endif
+
 	return entity;
 }
 
+static bool next_queue_may_preempt(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
+{
+	struct bfq_sched_data *sd = &bfqd->root_group->sched_data;
+
+	return sd->next_in_service != sd->in_service_entity;
+}
+
 /*
  * Get next queue for service.
  */
@@ -1083,58 +1679,208 @@ static struct bfq_queue *bfq_get_next_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 	if (bfqd->busy_queues == 0)
 		return NULL;
 
+	/*
+	 * Traverse the path from the root to the leaf entity to
+	 * serve. Set in service all the entities visited along the
+	 * way.
+	 */
 	sd = &bfqd->root_group->sched_data;
 	for (; sd ; sd = entity->my_sched_data) {
-		entity = bfq_lookup_next_entity(sd, 1, bfqd);
-		BUG_ON(!entity);
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+		if (entity) {
+			struct bfq_group *bfqg =
+				container_of(entity, struct bfq_group, entity);
+
+			bfq_log_bfqg(bfqd, bfqg,
+				     "get_next_queue: lookup in this group");
+			if (!sd->next_in_service)
+				pr_crit("get_next_queue: lookup in this group");
+		} else {
+			bfq_log_bfqg(bfqd, bfqd->root_group,
+				     "get_next_queue: lookup in root group");
+			if (!sd->next_in_service)
+				pr_crit("get_next_queue: lookup in root group");
+		}
+#endif
+
+		BUG_ON(!sd->next_in_service);
+
+		/*
+		 * WARNING. We are about to set the in-service entity
+		 * to sd->next_in_service, i.e., to the (cached) value
+		 * returned by bfq_lookup_next_entity(sd) the last
+		 * time it was invoked, i.e., the last time when the
+		 * service order in sd changed as a consequence of the
+		 * activation or deactivation of an entity. In this
+		 * respect, if we execute bfq_lookup_next_entity(sd)
+		 * in this very moment, it may, although with low
+		 * probability, yield a different entity than that
+		 * pointed to by sd->next_in_service. This rare event
+		 * happens in case there was no CLASS_IDLE entity to
+		 * serve for sd when bfq_lookup_next_entity(sd) was
+		 * invoked for the last time, while there is now one
+		 * such entity.
+		 *
+		 * If the above event happens, then the scheduling of
+		 * such entity in CLASS_IDLE is postponed until the
+		 * service of the sd->next_in_service entity
+		 * finishes. In fact, when the latter is expired,
+		 * bfq_lookup_next_entity(sd) gets called again,
+		 * exactly to update sd->next_in_service.
+		 */
+
+		/* Make next_in_service entity become in_service_entity */
+		entity = sd->next_in_service;
+		sd->in_service_entity = entity;
+
+		/*
+		 * Reset the accumulator of the amount of service that
+		 * the entity is about to receive.
+		 */
 		entity->service = 0;
+
+		/*
+		 * If entity is no longer a candidate for next
+		 * service, then we extract it from its active tree,
+		 * for the following reason. To further boost the
+		 * throughput in some special case, BFQ needs to know
+		 * which is the next candidate entity to serve, while
+		 * there is already an entity in service. In this
+		 * respect, to make it easy to compute/update the next
+		 * candidate entity to serve after the current
+		 * candidate has been set in service, there is a case
+		 * where it is necessary to extract the current
+		 * candidate from its service tree. Such a case is
+		 * when the entity just set in service cannot be also
+		 * a candidate for next service. Details about when
+		 * this conditions holds are reported in the comments
+		 * on the function bfq_no_longer_next_in_service()
+		 * invoked below.
+		 */
+		if (bfq_no_longer_next_in_service(entity))
+			bfq_active_extract(bfq_entity_service_tree(entity),
+					   entity);
+
+		/*
+		 * For the same reason why we may have just extracted
+		 * entity from its active tree, we may need to update
+		 * next_in_service for the sched_data of entity too,
+		 * regardless of whether entity has been extracted.
+		 * In fact, even if entity has not been extracted, a
+		 * descendant entity may get extracted. Such an event
+		 * would cause a change in next_in_service for the
+		 * level of the descendant entity, and thus possibly
+		 * back to upper levels.
+		 *
+		 * We cannot perform the resulting needed update
+		 * before the end of this loop, because, to know which
+		 * is the correct next-to-serve candidate entity for
+		 * each level, we need first to find the leaf entity
+		 * to set in service. In fact, only after we know
+		 * which is the next-to-serve leaf entity, we can
+		 * discover whether the parent entity of the leaf
+		 * entity becomes the next-to-serve, and so on.
+		 */
+
+		/* Log some information */
+		bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+		if (bfqq)
+			bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq,
+			     "get_next_queue: this queue, finish %llu",
+				(((entity->finish>>10)*1000)>>10)>>2);
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+		else {
+			struct bfq_group *bfqg =
+				container_of(entity, struct bfq_group, entity);
+
+			bfq_log_bfqg(bfqd, bfqg,
+			     "get_next_queue: this entity, finish %llu",
+				(((entity->finish>>10)*1000)>>10)>>2);
+		}
+#endif
+
 	}
 
+	BUG_ON(!entity);
 	bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
 	BUG_ON(!bfqq);
 
+	/*
+	 * We can finally update all next-to-serve entities along the
+	 * path from the leaf entity just set in service to the root.
+	 */
+	for_each_entity(entity) {
+		struct bfq_sched_data *sd = entity->sched_data;
+
+		if(!bfq_update_next_in_service(sd, NULL))
+			break;
+	}
+
 	return bfqq;
 }
 
 static void __bfq_bfqd_reset_in_service(struct bfq_data *bfqd)
 {
+	struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqd->in_service_queue->entity;
+
 	if (bfqd->in_service_bic) {
 		put_io_context(bfqd->in_service_bic->icq.ioc);
 		bfqd->in_service_bic = NULL;
 	}
 
+	bfq_clear_bfqq_wait_request(bfqd->in_service_queue);
+	hrtimer_try_to_cancel(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
 	bfqd->in_service_queue = NULL;
-	del_timer(&bfqd->idle_slice_timer);
+
+	/*
+	 * When this function is called, all in-service entities have
+	 * been properly deactivated or requeued, so we can safely
+	 * execute the final step: reset in_service_entity along the
+	 * path from entity to the root.
+	 */
+	for_each_entity(entity)
+		entity->sched_data->in_service_entity = NULL;
 }
 
 static void bfq_deactivate_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
-				int requeue)
+				bool ins_into_idle_tree, bool expiration)
 {
 	struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
 
-	if (bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue)
-		__bfq_bfqd_reset_in_service(bfqd);
-
-	bfq_deactivate_entity(entity, requeue);
+	bfq_deactivate_entity(entity, ins_into_idle_tree, expiration);
 }
 
 static void bfq_activate_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 {
 	struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+	struct bfq_service_tree *st = bfq_entity_service_tree(entity);
 
-	bfq_activate_entity(entity);
+	BUG_ON(bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue);
+	BUG_ON(entity->tree != &st->active && entity->tree != &st->idle &&
+	       entity->on_st);
+
+	bfq_activate_requeue_entity(entity, bfq_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq),
+				    false);
+	bfq_clear_bfqq_non_blocking_wait_rq(bfqq);
+}
+
+static void bfq_requeue_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
+{
+	struct bfq_entity *entity = &bfqq->entity;
+
+	bfq_activate_requeue_entity(entity, false,
+				    bfqq == bfqd->in_service_queue);
 }
 
-#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 static void bfqg_stats_update_dequeue(struct bfq_group *bfqg);
-#endif
 
 /*
  * Called when the bfqq no longer has requests pending, remove it from
- * the service tree.
+ * the service tree. As a special case, it can be invoked during an
+ * expiration.
  */
 static void bfq_del_bfqq_busy(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
-			      int requeue)
+			      bool expiration)
 {
 	BUG_ON(!bfq_bfqq_busy(bfqq));
 	BUG_ON(!RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&bfqq->sort_list));
@@ -1146,27 +1892,20 @@ static void bfq_del_bfqq_busy(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq,
 	BUG_ON(bfqd->busy_queues == 0);
 	bfqd->busy_queues--;
 
-	if (!bfqq->dispatched) {
+	if (!bfqq->dispatched)
 		bfq_weights_tree_remove(bfqd, &bfqq->entity,
 					&bfqd->queue_weights_tree);
-		if (!blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue)) {
-			BUG_ON(!bfqd->busy_in_flight_queues);
-			bfqd->busy_in_flight_queues--;
-			if (bfq_bfqq_constantly_seeky(bfqq)) {
-				BUG_ON(!bfqd->
-					const_seeky_busy_in_flight_queues);
-				bfqd->const_seeky_busy_in_flight_queues--;
-			}
-		}
-	}
+
 	if (bfqq->wr_coeff > 1)
 		bfqd->wr_busy_queues--;
 
-#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 	bfqg_stats_update_dequeue(bfqq_group(bfqq));
-#endif
 
-	bfq_deactivate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, requeue);
+	BUG_ON(bfqq->entity.budget < 0);
+
+	bfq_deactivate_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, true, expiration);
+
+	BUG_ON(bfqq->entity.budget < 0);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -1184,16 +1923,11 @@ static void bfq_add_bfqq_busy(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
 	bfq_mark_bfqq_busy(bfqq);
 	bfqd->busy_queues++;
 
-	if (!bfqq->dispatched) {
+	if (!bfqq->dispatched)
 		if (bfqq->wr_coeff == 1)
 			bfq_weights_tree_add(bfqd, &bfqq->entity,
 					     &bfqd->queue_weights_tree);
-		if (!blk_queue_nonrot(bfqd->queue)) {
-			bfqd->busy_in_flight_queues++;
-			if (bfq_bfqq_constantly_seeky(bfqq))
-				bfqd->const_seeky_busy_in_flight_queues++;
-		}
-	}
+
 	if (bfqq->wr_coeff > 1)
 		bfqd->wr_busy_queues++;
 }
diff --git a/block/bfq.h b/block/bfq.h
index fcce85528377..bef8244cc03f 100644
--- a/block/bfq.h
+++ b/block/bfq.h
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 /*
- * BFQ-v7r11 for 4.5.0: data structures and common functions prototypes.
+ * BFQ v8r7 for 4.9.0: data structures and common functions prototypes.
  *
  * Based on ideas and code from CFQ:
  * Copyright (C) 2003 Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
@@ -7,7 +7,9 @@
  * Copyright (C) 2008 Fabio Checconi <fabio@gandalf.sssup.it>
  *		      Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
  *
- * Copyright (C) 2010 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
+ * Copyright (C) 2015 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@unimore.it>
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2016 Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org>
  */
 
 #ifndef _BFQ_H
@@ -28,20 +30,21 @@
 
 #define BFQ_DEFAULT_QUEUE_IOPRIO	4
 
-#define BFQ_DEFAULT_GRP_WEIGHT	10
+#define BFQ_WEIGHT_LEGACY_DFL	100
 #define BFQ_DEFAULT_GRP_IOPRIO	0
 #define BFQ_DEFAULT_GRP_CLASS	IOPRIO_CLASS_BE
 
+/*
+ * Soft real-time applications are extremely more latency sensitive
+ * than interactive ones. Over-raise the weight of the former to
+ * privilege them against the latter.
+ */
+#define BFQ_SOFTRT_WEIGHT_FACTOR	100
+
 struct bfq_entity;
 
 /**
  * struct bfq_service_tree - per ioprio_class service tree.
- * @active: tree for active entities (i.e., those backlogged).
- * @idle: tree for idle entities (i.e., those not backlogged, with V <= F_i).
- * @first_idle: idle entity with minimum F_i.
- * @last_idle: idle entity with maximum F_i.
- * @vtime: scheduler virtual time.
- * @wsum: scheduler weight sum; active and idle entities contribute to it.
  *
  * Each service tree represents a B-WF2Q+ scheduler on its own.  Each
  * ioprio_class has its own independent scheduler, and so its own
@@ -49,27 +52,28 @@ struct bfq_entity;
  * of the containing bfqd.
  */
 struct bfq_service_tree {
+	/* tree for active entities (i.e., those backlogged) */
 	struct rb_root active;
+	/* tree for idle entities (i.e., not backlogged, with V <= F_i)*/
 	struct rb_root idle;
 
-	struct bfq_entity *first_idle;
-	struct bfq_entity *last_idle;
+	struct bfq_entity *first_idle;	/* idle entity with minimum F_i */
+	struct bfq_entity *last_idle;	/* idle entity with maximum F_i */
 
-	u64 vtime;
+	u64 vtime; /* scheduler virtual time */
+	/* scheduler weight sum; active and idle entities contribute to it */
 	unsigned long wsum;
 };
 
 /**
  * struct bfq_sched_data - multi-class scheduler.
- * @in_service_entity: entity in service.
- * @next_in_service: head-of-the-line entity in the scheduler.
- * @service_tree: array of service trees, one per ioprio_class.
  *
  * bfq_sched_data is the basic scheduler queue.  It supports three
- * ioprio_classes, and can be used either as a toplevel queue or as
- * an intermediate queue on a hierarchical setup.
- * @next_in_service points to the active entity of the sched_data
- * service trees that will be scheduled next.
+ * ioprio_classes, and can be used either as a toplevel queue or as an
+ * intermediate queue on a hierarchical setup.  @next_in_service
+ * points to the active entity of the sched_data service trees that
+ * will be scheduled next. It is used to reduce the number of steps
+ * needed for each hierarchical-schedule update.
  *
  * The supported ioprio_classes are the same as in CFQ, in descending
  * priority order, IOPRIO_CLASS_RT, IOPRIO_CLASS_BE, IOPRIO_CLASS_IDLE.
@@ -79,48 +83,32 @@ struct bfq_service_tree {
  * All the fields are protected by the queue lock of the containing bfqd.
  */
 struct bfq_sched_data {
-	struct bfq_entity *in_service_entity;
+	struct bfq_entity *in_service_entity;  /* entity in service */
+	/* head-of-the-line entity in the scheduler (see comments above) */
 	struct bfq_entity *next_in_service;
+	/* array of service trees, one per ioprio_class */
 	struct bfq_service_tree service_tree[BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES];
+	/* last time CLASS_IDLE was served */
+	unsigned long bfq_class_idle_last_service;
+
 };
 
 /**
  * struct bfq_weight_counter - counter of the number of all active entities
  *                             with a given weight.
- * @weight: weight of the entities that this counter refers to.
- * @num_active: number of active entities with this weight.
- * @weights_node: weights tree member (see bfq_data's @queue_weights_tree
- *                and @group_weights_tree).
  */
 struct bfq_weight_counter {
-	short int weight;
-	unsigned int num_active;
+	unsigned int weight; /* weight of the entities this counter refers to */
+	unsigned int num_active; /* nr of active entities with this weight */
+	/*
+	 * Weights tree member (see bfq_data's @queue_weights_tree and
+	 * @group_weights_tree)
+	 */
 	struct rb_node weights_node;
 };
 
 /**
  * struct bfq_entity - schedulable entity.
- * @rb_node: service_tree member.
- * @weight_counter: pointer to the weight counter associated with this entity.
- * @on_st: flag, true if the entity is on a tree (either the active or
- *         the idle one of its service_tree).
- * @finish: B-WF2Q+ finish timestamp (aka F_i).
- * @start: B-WF2Q+ start timestamp (aka S_i).
- * @tree: tree the entity is enqueued into; %NULL if not on a tree.
- * @min_start: minimum start time of the (active) subtree rooted at
- *             this entity; used for O(log N) lookups into active trees.
- * @service: service received during the last round of service.
- * @budget: budget used to calculate F_i; F_i = S_i + @budget / @weight.
- * @weight: weight of the queue
- * @parent: parent entity, for hierarchical scheduling.
- * @my_sched_data: for non-leaf nodes in the cgroup hierarchy, the
- *                 associated scheduler queue, %NULL on leaf nodes.
- * @sched_data: the scheduler queue this entity belongs to.
- * @ioprio: the ioprio in use.
- * @new_weight: when a weight change is requested, the new weight value.
- * @orig_weight: original weight, used to implement weight boosting
- * @prio_changed: flag, true when the user requested a weight, ioprio or
- *		  ioprio_class change.
  *
  * A bfq_entity is used to represent either a bfq_queue (leaf node in the
  * cgroup hierarchy) or a bfq_group into the upper level scheduler.  Each
@@ -147,27 +135,52 @@ struct bfq_weight_counter {
  * containing bfqd.
  */
 struct bfq_entity {
-	struct rb_node rb_node;
+	struct rb_node rb_node; /* service_tree member */
+	/* pointer to the weight counter associated with this entity */
 	struct bfq_weight_counter *weight_counter;
 
-	int on_st;
+	/*
+	 * Flag, true if the entity is on a tree (either the active or
+	 * the idle one of its service_tree) or is in service.
+	 */
+	bool on_st;
 
-	u64 finish;
-	u64 start;
+	u64 finish; /* B-WF2Q+ finish timestamp (aka F_i) */
+	u64 start;  /* B-WF2Q+ start timestamp (aka S_i) */
 
+	/* tree the entity is enqueued into; %NULL if not on a tree */
 	struct rb_root *tree;
 
+	/*
+	 * minimum start time of the (active) subtree rooted at this
+	 * entity; used for O(log N) lookups into active trees
+	 */
 	u64 min_start;
 
-	int service, budget;
-	unsigned short weight, new_weight;
-	unsigned short orig_weight;
+	/* amount of service received during the last service slot */
+	int service;
 
+	/* budget, used also to calculate F_i: F_i = S_i + @budget / @weight */
+	int budget;
+
+	unsigned int weight;	 /* weight of the queue */
+	unsigned int new_weight; /* next weight if a change is in progress */
+
+	/* original weight, used to implement weight boosting */
+	unsigned int orig_weight;
+
+	/* parent entity, for hierarchical scheduling */
 	struct bfq_entity *parent;
 
+	/*
+	 * For non-leaf nodes in the hierarchy, the associated
+	 * scheduler queue, %NULL on leaf nodes.
+	 */
 	struct bfq_sched_data *my_sched_data;
+	/* the scheduler queue this entity belongs to */
 	struct bfq_sched_data *sched_data;
 
+	/* flag, set to request a weight, ioprio or ioprio_class change  */
 	int prio_changed;
 };
 
@@ -175,56 +188,6 @@ struct bfq_group;
 
 /**
  * struct bfq_queue - leaf schedulable entity.
- * @ref: reference counter.
- * @bfqd: parent bfq_data.
- * @new_ioprio: when an ioprio change is requested, the new ioprio value.
- * @ioprio_class: the ioprio_class in use.
- * @new_ioprio_class: when an ioprio_class change is requested, the new
- *                    ioprio_class value.
- * @new_bfqq: shared bfq_queue if queue is cooperating with
- *           one or more other queues.
- * @pos_node: request-position tree member (see bfq_group's @rq_pos_tree).
- * @pos_root: request-position tree root (see bfq_group's @rq_pos_tree).
- * @sort_list: sorted list of pending requests.
- * @next_rq: if fifo isn't expired, next request to serve.
- * @queued: nr of requests queued in @sort_list.
- * @allocated: currently allocated requests.
- * @meta_pending: pending metadata requests.
- * @fifo: fifo list of requests in sort_list.
- * @entity: entity representing this queue in the scheduler.
- * @max_budget: maximum budget allowed from the feedback mechanism.
- * @budget_timeout: budget expiration (in jiffies).
- * @dispatched: number of requests on the dispatch list or inside driver.
- * @flags: status flags.
- * @bfqq_list: node for active/idle bfqq list inside our bfqd.
- * @burst_list_node: node for the device's burst list.
- * @seek_samples: number of seeks sampled
- * @seek_total: sum of the distances of the seeks sampled
- * @seek_mean: mean seek distance
- * @last_request_pos: position of the last request enqueued
- * @requests_within_timer: number of consecutive pairs of request completion
- *                         and arrival, such that the queue becomes idle
- *                         after the completion, but the next request arrives
- *                         within an idle time slice; used only if the queue's
- *                         IO_bound has been cleared.
- * @pid: pid of the process owning the queue, used for logging purposes.
- * @last_wr_start_finish: start time of the current weight-raising period if
- *                        the @bfq-queue is being weight-raised, otherwise
- *                        finish time of the last weight-raising period
- * @wr_cur_max_time: current max raising time for this queue
- * @soft_rt_next_start: minimum time instant such that, only if a new
- *                      request is enqueued after this time instant in an
- *                      idle @bfq_queue with no outstanding requests, then
- *                      the task associated with the queue it is deemed as
- *                      soft real-time (see the comments to the function
- *                      bfq_bfqq_softrt_next_start())
- * @last_idle_bklogged: time of the last transition of the @bfq_queue from
- *                      idle to backlogged
- * @service_from_backlogged: cumulative service received from the @bfq_queue
- *                           since the last transition from idle to
- *                           backlogged
- * @bic: pointer to the bfq_io_cq owning the bfq_queue, set to %NULL if the
- *	 queue is shared
  *
  * A bfq_queue is a leaf request queue; it can be associated with an
  * io_context or more, if it  is  async or shared  between  cooperating
@@ -235,117 +198,175 @@ struct bfq_group;
  * All the fields are protected by the queue lock of the containing bfqd.
  */
 struct bfq_queue {
-	atomic_t ref;
+	/* reference counter */
+	int ref;
+	/* parent bfq_data */
 	struct bfq_data *bfqd;
 
-	unsigned short ioprio, new_ioprio;
-	unsigned short ioprio_class, new_ioprio_class;
+	/* current ioprio and ioprio class */
+	unsigned short ioprio, ioprio_class;
+	/* next ioprio and ioprio class if a change is in progress */
+	unsigned short new_ioprio, new_ioprio_class;
 
-	/* fields for cooperating queues handling */
+	/*
+	 * Shared bfq_queue if queue is cooperating with one or more
+	 * other queues.
+	 */
 	struct bfq_queue *new_bfqq;
+	/* request-position tree member (see bfq_group's @rq_pos_tree) */
 	struct rb_node pos_node;
+	/* request-position tree root (see bfq_group's @rq_pos_tree) */
 	struct rb_root *pos_root;
 
+	/* sorted list of pending requests */
 	struct rb_root sort_list;
+	/* if fifo isn't expired, next request to serve */
 	struct request *next_rq;
+	/* number of sync and async requests queued */
 	int queued[2];
+	/* number of sync and async requests currently allocated */
 	int allocated[2];
+	/* number of pending metadata requests */
 	int meta_pending;
+	/* fifo list of requests in sort_list */
 	struct list_head fifo;
 
+	/* entity representing this queue in the scheduler */
 	struct bfq_entity entity;
 
+	/* maximum budget allowed from the feedback mechanism */
 	int max_budget;
+	/* budget expiration (in jiffies) */
 	unsigned long budget_timeout;
 
+	/* number of requests on the dispatch list or inside driver */
 	int dispatched;
 
-	unsigned int flags;
+	unsigned int flags; /* status flags.*/
 
+	/* node for active/idle bfqq list inside parent bfqd */
 	struct list_head bfqq_list;
 
+	/* bit vector: a 1 for each seeky requests in history */
+	u32 seek_history;
+
+	/* node for the device's burst list */
 	struct hlist_node burst_list_node;
 
-	unsigned int seek_samples;
-	u64 seek_total;
-	sector_t seek_mean;
+	/* position of the last request enqueued */
 	sector_t last_request_pos;
 
+	/* Number of consecutive pairs of request completion and
+	 * arrival, such that the queue becomes idle after the
+	 * completion, but the next request arrives within an idle
+	 * time slice; used only if the queue's IO_bound flag has been
+	 * cleared.
+	 */
 	unsigned int requests_within_timer;
 
+	/* pid of the process owning the queue, used for logging purposes */
 	pid_t pid;
+
+	/*
+	 * Pointer to the bfq_io_cq owning the bfq_queue, set to %NULL
+	 * if the queue is shared.
+	 */
 	struct bfq_io_cq *bic;
 
-	/* weight-raising fields */
+	/* current maximum weight-raising time for this queue */
 	unsigned long wr_cur_max_time;
+	/*
+	 * Minimum time instant such that, only if a new request is
+	 * enqueued after this time instant in an idle @bfq_queue with
+	 * no outstanding requests, then the task associated with the
+	 * queue it is deemed as soft real-time (see the comments on
+	 * the function bfq_bfqq_softrt_next_start())
+	 */
 	unsigned long soft_rt_next_start;
+	/*
+	 * Start time of the current weight-raising period if
+	 * the @bfq-queue is being weight-raised, otherwise
+	 * finish time of the last weight-raising period.
+	 */
 	unsigned long last_wr_start_finish;
+	/* factor by which the weight of this queue is multiplied */
 	unsigned int wr_coeff;
+	/*
+	 * Time of the last transition of the @bfq_queue from idle to
+	 * backlogged.
+	 */
 	unsigned long last_idle_bklogged;
+	/*
+	 * Cumulative service received from the @bfq_queue since the
+	 * last transition from idle to backlogged.
+	 */
 	unsigned long service_from_backlogged;
+	/*
+	 * Value of wr start time when switching to soft rt
+	 */
+	unsigned long wr_start_at_switch_to_srt;
+
+	unsigned long split_time; /* time of last split */
 };
 
 /**
  * struct bfq_ttime - per process thinktime stats.
- * @ttime_total: total process thinktime
- * @ttime_samples: number of thinktime samples
- * @ttime_mean: average process thinktime
  */
 struct bfq_ttime {
-	unsigned long last_end_request;
+	u64 last_end_request; /* completion time of last request */
+
+	u64 ttime_total; /* total process thinktime */
+	unsigned long ttime_samples; /* number of thinktime samples */
+	u64 ttime_mean; /* average process thinktime */
 
-	unsigned long ttime_total;
-	unsigned long ttime_samples;
-	unsigned long ttime_mean;
 };
 
 /**
  * struct bfq_io_cq - per (request_queue, io_context) structure.
- * @icq: associated io_cq structure
- * @bfqq: array of two process queues, the sync and the async
- * @ttime: associated @bfq_ttime struct
- * @ioprio: per (request_queue, blkcg) ioprio.
- * @blkcg_id: id of the blkcg the related io_cq belongs to.
- * @wr_time_left: snapshot of the time left before weight raising ends
- *                for the sync queue associated to this process; this
- *		  snapshot is taken to remember this value while the weight
- *		  raising is suspended because the queue is merged with a
- *		  shared queue, and is used to set @raising_cur_max_time
- *		  when the queue is split from the shared queue and its
- *		  weight is raised again
- * @saved_idle_window: same purpose as the previous field for the idle
- *                     window
- * @saved_IO_bound: same purpose as the previous two fields for the I/O
- *                  bound classification of a queue
- * @saved_in_large_burst: same purpose as the previous fields for the
- *                        value of the field keeping the queue's belonging
- *                        to a large burst
- * @was_in_burst_list: true if the queue belonged to a burst list
- *                     before its merge with another cooperating queue
- * @cooperations: counter of consecutive successful queue merges underwent
- *                by any of the process' @bfq_queues
- * @failed_cooperations: counter of consecutive failed queue merges of any
- *                       of the process' @bfq_queues
  */
 struct bfq_io_cq {
+	/* associated io_cq structure */
 	struct io_cq icq; /* must be the first member */
+	/* array of two process queues, the sync and the async */
 	struct bfq_queue *bfqq[2];
+	/* associated @bfq_ttime struct */
 	struct bfq_ttime ttime;
+	/* per (request_queue, blkcg) ioprio */
 	int ioprio;
-
 #ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
-	uint64_t blkcg_id; /* the current blkcg ID */
+	uint64_t blkcg_serial_nr; /* the current blkcg serial */
 #endif
 
-	unsigned int wr_time_left;
+	/*
+	 * Snapshot of the idle window before merging; taken to
+	 * remember this value while the queue is merged, so as to be
+	 * able to restore it in case of split.
+	 */
 	bool saved_idle_window;
+	/*
+	 * Same purpose as the previous two fields for the I/O bound
+	 * classification of a queue.
+	 */
 	bool saved_IO_bound;
 
+	/*
+	 * Same purpose as the previous fields for the value of the
+	 * field keeping the queue's belonging to a large burst
+	 */
 	bool saved_in_large_burst;
+	/*
+	 * True if the queue belonged to a burst list before its merge
+	 * with another cooperating queue.
+	 */
 	bool was_in_burst_list;
 
-	unsigned int cooperations;
-	unsigned int failed_cooperations;
+	/*
+	 * Similar to previous fields: save wr information.
+	 */
+	unsigned long saved_wr_coeff;
+	unsigned long saved_last_wr_start_finish;
+	unsigned long saved_wr_start_at_switch_to_srt;
+	unsigned int saved_wr_cur_max_time;
 };
 
 enum bfq_device_speed {
@@ -354,224 +375,232 @@ enum bfq_device_speed {
 };
 
 /**
- * struct bfq_data - per device data structure.
- * @queue: request queue for the managed device.
- * @root_group: root bfq_group for the device.
- * @active_numerous_groups: number of bfq_groups containing more than one
- *                          active @bfq_entity.
- * @queue_weights_tree: rbtree of weight counters of @bfq_queues, sorted by
- *                      weight. Used to keep track of whether all @bfq_queues
- *                     have the same weight. The tree contains one counter
- *                     for each distinct weight associated to some active
- *                     and not weight-raised @bfq_queue (see the comments to
- *                      the functions bfq_weights_tree_[add|remove] for
- *                     further details).
- * @group_weights_tree: rbtree of non-queue @bfq_entity weight counters, sorted
- *                      by weight. Used to keep track of whether all
- *                     @bfq_groups have the same weight. The tree contains
- *                     one counter for each distinct weight associated to
- *                     some active @bfq_group (see the comments to the
- *                     functions bfq_weights_tree_[add|remove] for further
- *                     details).
- * @busy_queues: number of bfq_queues containing requests (including the
- *		 queue in service, even if it is idling).
- * @busy_in_flight_queues: number of @bfq_queues containing pending or
- *                         in-flight requests, plus the @bfq_queue in
- *                         service, even if idle but waiting for the
- *                         possible arrival of its next sync request. This
- *                         field is updated only if the device is rotational,
- *                         but used only if the device is also NCQ-capable.
- *                         The reason why the field is updated also for non-
- *                         NCQ-capable rotational devices is related to the
- *                         fact that the value of @hw_tag may be set also
- *                         later than when busy_in_flight_queues may need to
- *                         be incremented for the first time(s). Taking also
- *                         this possibility into account, to avoid unbalanced
- *                         increments/decrements, would imply more overhead
- *                         than just updating busy_in_flight_queues
- *                         regardless of the value of @hw_tag.
- * @const_seeky_busy_in_flight_queues: number of constantly-seeky @bfq_queues
- *                                     (that is, seeky queues that expired
- *                                     for budget timeout at least once)
- *                                     containing pending or in-flight
- *                                     requests, including the in-service
- *                                     @bfq_queue if constantly seeky. This
- *                                     field is updated only if the device
- *                                     is rotational, but used only if the
- *                                     device is also NCQ-capable (see the
- *                                     comments to @busy_in_flight_queues).
- * @wr_busy_queues: number of weight-raised busy @bfq_queues.
- * @queued: number of queued requests.
- * @rq_in_driver: number of requests dispatched and waiting for completion.
- * @sync_flight: number of sync requests in the driver.
- * @max_rq_in_driver: max number of reqs in driver in the last
- *                    @hw_tag_samples completed requests.
- * @hw_tag_samples: nr of samples used to calculate hw_tag.
- * @hw_tag: flag set to one if the driver is showing a queueing behavior.
- * @budgets_assigned: number of budgets assigned.
- * @idle_slice_timer: timer set when idling for the next sequential request
- *                    from the queue in service.
- * @unplug_work: delayed work to restart dispatching on the request queue.
- * @in_service_queue: bfq_queue in service.
- * @in_service_bic: bfq_io_cq (bic) associated with the @in_service_queue.
- * @last_position: on-disk position of the last served request.
- * @last_budget_start: beginning of the last budget.
- * @last_idling_start: beginning of the last idle slice.
- * @peak_rate: peak transfer rate observed for a budget.
- * @peak_rate_samples: number of samples used to calculate @peak_rate.
- * @bfq_max_budget: maximum budget allotted to a bfq_queue before
- *                  rescheduling.
- * @active_list: list of all the bfq_queues active on the device.
- * @idle_list: list of all the bfq_queues idle on the device.
- * @bfq_fifo_expire: timeout for async/sync requests; when it expires
- *                   requests are served in fifo order.
- * @bfq_back_penalty: weight of backward seeks wrt forward ones.
- * @bfq_back_max: maximum allowed backward seek.
- * @bfq_slice_idle: maximum idling time.
- * @bfq_user_max_budget: user-configured max budget value
- *                       (0 for auto-tuning).
- * @bfq_max_budget_async_rq: maximum budget (in nr of requests) allotted to
- *                           async queues.
- * @bfq_timeout: timeout for bfq_queues to consume their budget; used to
- *               to prevent seeky queues to impose long latencies to well
- *               behaved ones (this also implies that seeky queues cannot
- *               receive guarantees in the service domain; after a timeout
- *               they are charged for the whole allocated budget, to try
- *               to preserve a behavior reasonably fair among them, but
- *               without service-domain guarantees).
- * @bfq_coop_thresh: number of queue merges after which a @bfq_queue is
- *                   no more granted any weight-raising.
- * @bfq_failed_cooperations: number of consecutive failed cooperation
- *                           chances after which weight-raising is restored
- *                           to a queue subject to more than bfq_coop_thresh
- *                           queue merges.
- * @bfq_requests_within_timer: number of consecutive requests that must be
- *                             issued within the idle time slice to set
- *                             again idling to a queue which was marked as
- *                             non-I/O-bound (see the definition of the
- *                             IO_bound flag for further details).
- * @last_ins_in_burst: last time at which a queue entered the current
- *                     burst of queues being activated shortly after
- *                     each other; for more details about this and the
- *                     following parameters related to a burst of
- *                     activations, see the comments to the function
- *                     @bfq_handle_burst.
- * @bfq_burst_interval: reference time interval used to decide whether a
- *                      queue has been activated shortly after
- *                      @last_ins_in_burst.
- * @burst_size: number of queues in the current burst of queue activations.
- * @bfq_large_burst_thresh: maximum burst size above which the current
- *			    queue-activation burst is deemed as 'large'.
- * @large_burst: true if a large queue-activation burst is in progress.
- * @burst_list: head of the burst list (as for the above fields, more details
- *		in the comments to the function bfq_handle_burst).
- * @low_latency: if set to true, low-latency heuristics are enabled.
- * @bfq_wr_coeff: maximum factor by which the weight of a weight-raised
- *                queue is multiplied.
- * @bfq_wr_max_time: maximum duration of a weight-raising period (jiffies).
- * @bfq_wr_rt_max_time: maximum duration for soft real-time processes.
- * @bfq_wr_min_idle_time: minimum idle period after which weight-raising
- *			  may be reactivated for a queue (in jiffies).
- * @bfq_wr_min_inter_arr_async: minimum period between request arrivals
- *				after which weight-raising may be
- *				reactivated for an already busy queue
- *				(in jiffies).
- * @bfq_wr_max_softrt_rate: max service-rate for a soft real-time queue,
- *			    sectors per seconds.
- * @RT_prod: cached value of the product R*T used for computing the maximum
- *	     duration of the weight raising automatically.
- * @device_speed: device-speed class for the low-latency heuristic.
- * @oom_bfqq: fallback dummy bfqq for extreme OOM conditions.
+ * struct bfq_data - per-device data structure.
  *
  * All the fields are protected by the @queue lock.
  */
 struct bfq_data {
+	/* request queue for the device */
 	struct request_queue *queue;
 
+	/* root bfq_group for the device */
 	struct bfq_group *root_group;
 
-#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
-	int active_numerous_groups;
-#endif
-
+	/*
+	 * rbtree of weight counters of @bfq_queues, sorted by
+	 * weight. Used to keep track of whether all @bfq_queues have
+	 * the same weight. The tree contains one counter for each
+	 * distinct weight associated to some active and not
+	 * weight-raised @bfq_queue (see the comments to the functions
+	 * bfq_weights_tree_[add|remove] for further details).
+	 */
 	struct rb_root queue_weights_tree;
+	/*
+	 * rbtree of non-queue @bfq_entity weight counters, sorted by
+	 * weight. Used to keep track of whether all @bfq_groups have
+	 * the same weight. The tree contains one counter for each
+	 * distinct weight associated to some active @bfq_group (see
+	 * the comments to the functions bfq_weights_tree_[add|remove]
+	 * for further details).
+	 */
 	struct rb_root group_weights_tree;
 
+	/*
+	 * Number of bfq_queues containing requests (including the
+	 * queue in service, even if it is idling).
+	 */
 	int busy_queues;
-	int busy_in_flight_queues;
-	int const_seeky_busy_in_flight_queues;
+	/* number of weight-raised busy @bfq_queues */
 	int wr_busy_queues;
+	/* number of queued requests */
 	int queued;
+	/* number of requests dispatched and waiting for completion */
 	int rq_in_driver;
-	int sync_flight;
 
+	/*
+	 * Maximum number of requests in driver in the last
+	 * @hw_tag_samples completed requests.
+	 */
 	int max_rq_in_driver;
+	/* number of samples used to calculate hw_tag */
 	int hw_tag_samples;
+	/* flag set to one if the driver is showing a queueing behavior */
 	int hw_tag;
 
+	/* number of budgets assigned */
 	int budgets_assigned;
 
-	struct timer_list idle_slice_timer;
+	/*
+	 * Timer set when idling (waiting) for the next request from
+	 * the queue in service.
+	 */
+	struct hrtimer idle_slice_timer;
+	/* delayed work to restart dispatching on the request queue */
 	struct work_struct unplug_work;
 
+	/* bfq_queue in service */
 	struct bfq_queue *in_service_queue;
+	/* bfq_io_cq (bic) associated with the @in_service_queue */
 	struct bfq_io_cq *in_service_bic;
 
+	/* on-disk position of the last served request */
 	sector_t last_position;
 
+	/* time of last request completion (ns) */
+	u64 last_completion;
+
+	/* time of first rq dispatch in current observation interval (ns) */
+	u64 first_dispatch;
+	/* time of last rq dispatch in current observation interval (ns) */
+	u64 last_dispatch;
+
+	/* beginning of the last budget */
 	ktime_t last_budget_start;
+	/* beginning of the last idle slice */
 	ktime_t last_idling_start;
+
+	/* number of samples in current observation interval */
 	int peak_rate_samples;
-	u64 peak_rate;
+	/* num of samples of seq dispatches in current observation interval */
+	u32 sequential_samples;
+	/* total num of sectors transferred in current observation interval */
+	u64 tot_sectors_dispatched;
+	/* max rq size seen during current observation interval (sectors) */
+	u32 last_rq_max_size;
+	/* time elapsed from first dispatch in current observ. interval (us) */
+	u64 delta_from_first;
+	/* current estimate of device peak rate */
+	u32 peak_rate;
+
+	/* maximum budget allotted to a bfq_queue before rescheduling */
 	int bfq_max_budget;
 
+	/* list of all the bfq_queues active on the device */
 	struct list_head active_list;
+	/* list of all the bfq_queues idle on the device */
 	struct list_head idle_list;
 
-	unsigned int bfq_fifo_expire[2];
+	/*
+	 * Timeout for async/sync requests; when it fires, requests
+	 * are served in fifo order.
+	 */
+	u64 bfq_fifo_expire[2];
+	/* weight of backward seeks wrt forward ones */
 	unsigned int bfq_back_penalty;
+	/* maximum allowed backward seek */
 	unsigned int bfq_back_max;
-	unsigned int bfq_slice_idle;
-	u64 bfq_class_idle_last_service;
+	/* maximum idling time */
+	u32 bfq_slice_idle;
 
+	/* user-configured max budget value (0 for auto-tuning) */
 	int bfq_user_max_budget;
-	int bfq_max_budget_async_rq;
-	unsigned int bfq_timeout[2];
+	/*
+	 * Timeout for bfq_queues to consume their budget; used to
+	 * prevent seeky queues from imposing long latencies to
+	 * sequential or quasi-sequential ones (this also implies that
+	 * seeky queues cannot receive guarantees in the service
+	 * domain; after a timeout they are charged for the time they
+	 * have been in service, to preserve fairness among them, but
+	 * without service-domain guarantees).
+	 */
+	unsigned int bfq_timeout;
 
-	unsigned int bfq_coop_thresh;
-	unsigned int bfq_failed_cooperations;
+	/*
+	 * Number of consecutive requests that must be issued within
+	 * the idle time slice to set again idling to a queue which
+	 * was marked as non-I/O-bound (see the definition of the
+	 * IO_bound flag for further details).
+	 */
 	unsigned int bfq_requests_within_timer;
 
+	/*
+	 * Force device idling whenever needed to provide accurate
+	 * service guarantees, without caring about throughput
+	 * issues. CAVEAT: this may even increase latencies, in case
+	 * of useless idling for processes that did stop doing I/O.
+	 */
+	bool strict_guarantees;
+
+	/*
+	 * Last time at which a queue entered the current burst of
+	 * queues being activated shortly after each other; for more
+	 * details about this and the following parameters related to
+	 * a burst of activations, see the comments on the function
+	 * bfq_handle_burst.
+	 */
 	unsigned long last_ins_in_burst;
+	/*
+	 * Reference time interval used to decide whether a queue has
+	 * been activated shortly after @last_ins_in_burst.
+	 */
 	unsigned long bfq_burst_interval;
+	/* number of queues in the current burst of queue activations */
 	int burst_size;
+
+	/* common parent entity for the queues in the burst */
+	struct bfq_entity *burst_parent_entity;
+	/* Maximum burst size above which the current queue-activation
+	 * burst is deemed as 'large'.
+	 */
 	unsigned long bfq_large_burst_thresh;
+	/* true if a large queue-activation burst is in progress */
 	bool large_burst;
+	/*
+	 * Head of the burst list (as for the above fields, more
+	 * details in the comments on the function bfq_handle_burst).
+	 */
 	struct hlist_head burst_list;
 
+	/* if set to true, low-latency heuristics are enabled */
 	bool low_latency;
-
-	/* parameters of the low_latency heuristics */
+	/*
+	 * Maximum factor by which the weight of a weight-raised queue
+	 * is multiplied.
+	 */
 	unsigned int bfq_wr_coeff;
+	/* maximum duration of a weight-raising period (jiffies) */
 	unsigned int bfq_wr_max_time;
+
+	/* Maximum weight-raising duration for soft real-time processes */
 	unsigned int bfq_wr_rt_max_time;
+	/*
+	 * Minimum idle period after which weight-raising may be
+	 * reactivated for a queue (in jiffies).
+	 */
 	unsigned int bfq_wr_min_idle_time;
+	/*
+	 * Minimum period between request arrivals after which
+	 * weight-raising may be reactivated for an already busy async
+	 * queue (in jiffies).
+	 */
 	unsigned long bfq_wr_min_inter_arr_async;
+
+	/* Max service-rate for a soft real-time queue, in sectors/sec */
 	unsigned int bfq_wr_max_softrt_rate;
+	/*
+	 * Cached value of the product R*T, used for computing the
+	 * maximum duration of weight raising automatically.
+	 */
 	u64 RT_prod;
+	/* device-speed class for the low-latency heuristic */
 	enum bfq_device_speed device_speed;
 
+	/* fallback dummy bfqq for extreme OOM conditions */
 	struct bfq_queue oom_bfqq;
 };
 
 enum bfqq_state_flags {
-	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_busy = 0,		/* has requests or is in service */
+	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_just_created = 0,	/* queue just allocated */
+	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_busy,		/* has requests or is in service */
 	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_wait_request,	/* waiting for a request */
+	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_non_blocking_wait_rq, /*
+					     * waiting for a request
+					     * without idling the device
+					     */
 	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_must_alloc,	/* must be allowed rq alloc */
 	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_fifo_expire,	/* FIFO checked in this slice */
 	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_idle_window,	/* slice idling enabled */
 	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_sync,		/* synchronous queue */
-	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_budget_new,	/* no completion with this budget */
 	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_IO_bound,		/*
 					 * bfqq has timed-out at least once
 					 * having consumed at most 2/10 of
@@ -581,17 +610,12 @@ enum bfqq_state_flags {
 					 * bfqq activated in a large burst,
 					 * see comments to bfq_handle_burst.
 					 */
-	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_constantly_seeky,	/*
-					 * bfqq has proved to be slow and
-					 * seeky until budget timeout
-					 */
 	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_softrt_update,	/*
 					 * may need softrt-next-start
 					 * update
 					 */
 	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_coop,		/* bfqq is shared */
-	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_split_coop,	/* shared bfqq will be split */
-	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_just_split,	/* queue has just been split */
+	BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_split_coop	/* shared bfqq will be split */
 };
 
 #define BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(name)						\
@@ -608,28 +632,94 @@ static int bfq_bfqq_##name(const struct bfq_queue *bfqq)		\
 	return ((bfqq)->flags & (1 << BFQ_BFQQ_FLAG_##name)) != 0;	\
 }
 
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(just_created);
 BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(busy);
 BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(wait_request);
+BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(non_blocking_wait_rq);
 BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(must_alloc);
 BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(fifo_expire);
 BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(idle_window);
 BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(sync);
-BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(budget_new);
 BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(IO_bound);
 BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(in_large_burst);
-BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(constantly_seeky);
 BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(coop);
 BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(split_coop);
-BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(just_split);
 BFQ_BFQQ_FNS(softrt_update);
 #undef BFQ_BFQQ_FNS
 
 /* Logging facilities. */
-#define bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, fmt, args...) \
-	blk_add_trace_msg((bfqd)->queue, "bfq%d " fmt, (bfqq)->pid, ##args)
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_REDIRECT_TO_CONSOLE
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+static struct bfq_group *bfqq_group(struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
+static struct blkcg_gq *bfqg_to_blkg(struct bfq_group *bfqg);
+
+#define bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, fmt, args...)	do {			\
+	char __pbuf[128];						\
+									\
+	assert_spin_locked((bfqd)->queue->queue_lock);			\
+	blkg_path(bfqg_to_blkg(bfqq_group(bfqq)), __pbuf, sizeof(__pbuf)); \
+	pr_crit("bfq%d%c %s " fmt "\n", 			\
+		(bfqq)->pid,						\
+		bfq_bfqq_sync((bfqq)) ? 'S' : 'A',			\
+		__pbuf, ##args);					\
+} while (0)
+
+#define bfq_log_bfqg(bfqd, bfqg, fmt, args...)	do {			\
+	char __pbuf[128];						\
+									\
+	blkg_path(bfqg_to_blkg(bfqg), __pbuf, sizeof(__pbuf));		\
+	pr_crit("%s " fmt "\n", __pbuf, ##args);	\
+} while (0)
+
+#else /* CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED */
+
+#define bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, fmt, args...)		\
+	pr_crit("bfq%d%c " fmt "\n", (bfqq)->pid,		\
+		bfq_bfqq_sync((bfqq)) ? 'S' : 'A',	\
+		##args)
+#define bfq_log_bfqg(bfqd, bfqg, fmt, args...)		do {} while (0)
+
+#endif /* CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED */
+
+#define bfq_log(bfqd, fmt, args...) \
+	pr_crit("bfq " fmt "\n", ##args)
+
+#else /* CONFIG_BFQ_REDIRECT_TO_CONSOLE */
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+static struct bfq_group *bfqq_group(struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
+static struct blkcg_gq *bfqg_to_blkg(struct bfq_group *bfqg);
+
+#define bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, fmt, args...)	do {			\
+	char __pbuf[128];						\
+									\
+	assert_spin_locked((bfqd)->queue->queue_lock);			\
+	blkg_path(bfqg_to_blkg(bfqq_group(bfqq)), __pbuf, sizeof(__pbuf)); \
+	blk_add_trace_msg((bfqd)->queue, "bfq%d%c %s " fmt, \
+			  (bfqq)->pid,			  \
+			  bfq_bfqq_sync((bfqq)) ? 'S' : 'A',	\
+			  __pbuf, ##args);				\
+} while (0)
+
+#define bfq_log_bfqg(bfqd, bfqg, fmt, args...)	do {			\
+	char __pbuf[128];						\
+									\
+	blkg_path(bfqg_to_blkg(bfqg), __pbuf, sizeof(__pbuf));		\
+	blk_add_trace_msg((bfqd)->queue, "%s " fmt, __pbuf, ##args);	\
+} while (0)
+
+#else /* CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED */
+
+#define bfq_log_bfqq(bfqd, bfqq, fmt, args...)	\
+	blk_add_trace_msg((bfqd)->queue, "bfq%d%c " fmt, (bfqq)->pid,	\
+			bfq_bfqq_sync((bfqq)) ? 'S' : 'A',		\
+				##args)
+#define bfq_log_bfqg(bfqd, bfqg, fmt, args...)		do {} while (0)
+
+#endif /* CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED */
 
 #define bfq_log(bfqd, fmt, args...) \
 	blk_add_trace_msg((bfqd)->queue, "bfq " fmt, ##args)
+#endif /* CONFIG_BFQ_REDIRECT_TO_CONSOLE */
 
 /* Expiration reasons. */
 enum bfqq_expiration {
@@ -640,15 +730,12 @@ enum bfqq_expiration {
 	BFQ_BFQQ_BUDGET_TIMEOUT,	/* budget took too long to be used */
 	BFQ_BFQQ_BUDGET_EXHAUSTED,	/* budget consumed */
 	BFQ_BFQQ_NO_MORE_REQUESTS,	/* the queue has no more requests */
+	BFQ_BFQQ_PREEMPTED		/* preemption in progress */
 };
 
-#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 
 struct bfqg_stats {
-	/* total bytes transferred */
-	struct blkg_rwstat		service_bytes;
-	/* total IOs serviced, post merge */
-	struct blkg_rwstat		serviced;
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 	/* number of ios merged */
 	struct blkg_rwstat		merged;
 	/* total time spent on device in ns, may not be accurate w/ queueing */
@@ -657,12 +744,8 @@ struct bfqg_stats {
 	struct blkg_rwstat		wait_time;
 	/* number of IOs queued up */
 	struct blkg_rwstat		queued;
-	/* total sectors transferred */
-	struct blkg_stat		sectors;
 	/* total disk time and nr sectors dispatched by this group */
 	struct blkg_stat		time;
-	/* time not charged to this cgroup */
-	struct blkg_stat		unaccounted_time;
 	/* sum of number of ios queued across all samples */
 	struct blkg_stat		avg_queue_size_sum;
 	/* count of samples taken for average */
@@ -680,8 +763,10 @@ struct bfqg_stats {
 	uint64_t			start_idle_time;
 	uint64_t			start_empty_time;
 	uint16_t			flags;
+#endif
 };
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 /*
  * struct bfq_group_data - per-blkcg storage for the blkio subsystem.
  *
@@ -692,7 +777,7 @@ struct bfq_group_data {
 	/* must be the first member */
 	struct blkcg_policy_data pd;
 
-	unsigned short weight;
+	unsigned int weight;
 };
 
 /**
@@ -712,7 +797,7 @@ struct bfq_group_data {
  *                   unused for the root group. Used to know whether there
  *                   are groups with more than one active @bfq_entity
  *                   (see the comments to the function
- *                   bfq_bfqq_must_not_expire()).
+ *                   bfq_bfqq_may_idle()).
  * @rq_pos_tree: rbtree sorted by next_request position, used when
  *               determining if two or more queues have interleaving
  *               requests (see bfq_find_close_cooperator()).
@@ -745,7 +830,6 @@ struct bfq_group {
 	struct rb_root rq_pos_tree;
 
 	struct bfqg_stats stats;
-	struct bfqg_stats dead_stats;	/* stats pushed from dead children */
 };
 
 #else
@@ -761,17 +845,38 @@ struct bfq_group {
 
 static struct bfq_queue *bfq_entity_to_bfqq(struct bfq_entity *entity);
 
+static unsigned int bfq_class_idx(struct bfq_entity *entity)
+{
+	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
+
+	return bfqq ? bfqq->ioprio_class - 1 :
+		BFQ_DEFAULT_GRP_CLASS - 1;
+}
+
 static struct bfq_service_tree *
 bfq_entity_service_tree(struct bfq_entity *entity)
 {
 	struct bfq_sched_data *sched_data = entity->sched_data;
 	struct bfq_queue *bfqq = bfq_entity_to_bfqq(entity);
-	unsigned int idx = bfqq ? bfqq->ioprio_class - 1 :
-				  BFQ_DEFAULT_GRP_CLASS;
+	unsigned int idx = bfq_class_idx(entity);
 
 	BUG_ON(idx >= BFQ_IOPRIO_CLASSES);
 	BUG_ON(sched_data == NULL);
 
+	if (bfqq)
+		bfq_log_bfqq(bfqq->bfqd, bfqq,
+			     "entity_service_tree %p %d",
+			     sched_data->service_tree + idx, idx);
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
+	else {
+		struct bfq_group *bfqg =
+			container_of(entity, struct bfq_group, entity);
+
+		bfq_log_bfqg((struct bfq_data *)bfqg->bfqd, bfqg,
+			     "entity_service_tree %p %d",
+			     sched_data->service_tree + idx, idx);
+	}
+#endif
 	return sched_data->service_tree + idx;
 }
 
@@ -791,47 +896,6 @@ static struct bfq_data *bic_to_bfqd(struct bfq_io_cq *bic)
 	return bic->icq.q->elevator->elevator_data;
 }
 
-/**
- * bfq_get_bfqd_locked - get a lock to a bfqd using a RCU protected pointer.
- * @ptr: a pointer to a bfqd.
- * @flags: storage for the flags to be saved.
- *
- * This function allows bfqg->bfqd to be protected by the
- * queue lock of the bfqd they reference; the pointer is dereferenced
- * under RCU, so the storage for bfqd is assured to be safe as long
- * as the RCU read side critical section does not end.  After the
- * bfqd->queue->queue_lock is taken the pointer is rechecked, to be
- * sure that no other writer accessed it.  If we raced with a writer,
- * the function returns NULL, with the queue unlocked, otherwise it
- * returns the dereferenced pointer, with the queue locked.
- */
-static struct bfq_data *bfq_get_bfqd_locked(void **ptr, unsigned long *flags)
-{
-	struct bfq_data *bfqd;
-
-	rcu_read_lock();
-	bfqd = rcu_dereference(*(struct bfq_data **)ptr);
-
-	if (bfqd != NULL) {
-		spin_lock_irqsave(bfqd->queue->queue_lock, *flags);
-		if (ptr == NULL)
-			printk(KERN_CRIT "get_bfqd_locked pointer NULL\n");
-		else if (*ptr == bfqd)
-			goto out;
-		spin_unlock_irqrestore(bfqd->queue->queue_lock, *flags);
-	}
-
-	bfqd = NULL;
-out:
-	rcu_read_unlock();
-	return bfqd;
-}
-
-static void bfq_put_bfqd_unlock(struct bfq_data *bfqd, unsigned long *flags)
-{
-	spin_unlock_irqrestore(bfqd->queue->queue_lock, *flags);
-}
-
 #ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 
 static struct bfq_group *bfq_bfqq_to_bfqg(struct bfq_queue *bfqq)
@@ -857,11 +921,13 @@ static void bfq_check_ioprio_change(struct bfq_io_cq *bic, struct bio *bio);
 static void bfq_put_queue(struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
 static void bfq_dispatch_insert(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq);
 static struct bfq_queue *bfq_get_queue(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
-				       struct bio *bio, int is_sync,
-				       struct bfq_io_cq *bic, gfp_t gfp_mask);
+				       struct bio *bio, bool is_sync,
+				       struct bfq_io_cq *bic);
 static void bfq_end_wr_async_queues(struct bfq_data *bfqd,
 				    struct bfq_group *bfqg);
+#ifdef CONFIG_BFQ_GROUP_IOSCHED
 static void bfq_put_async_queues(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_group *bfqg);
+#endif
 static void bfq_exit_bfqq(struct bfq_data *bfqd, struct bfq_queue *bfqq);
 
 #endif /* _BFQ_H */